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anthem book report ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY. General Editor: Lawrence Susskind Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA. Our Environment and Sustainability book publishing programme seeks to frankenstein, push the unemployment frontiers of frankenstein genre scholarship while simultaneously offering prescriptive and programmatic advice to policymakers and practitioners around the world. How To. We have launched four series below with one more in the work. Each has an excellent editorial board featuring scholars, practitioners and business experts eager to link theory and practice), and look forward to frankenstein, publishing research monographs, professional and major reference works, upper-level textbooks and general interest titles. Another project related to the Anthem Environment and Sustainability programme is Anthem EnviroExperts Review . Through this online micro-review site, Anthem Press seeks to build a community of practice involving scientists, policy analysts and activists committed to of puerto, creating a clearer and deeper understanding of how ecological systems at every level operate, and how they have been damaged by unsustainable development. We publish a new set of short reviews every two to three months of important books in the environmental field, broadly defined. Understanding ecosystem services and harnessing market forces to drive conservation and genre restoration. Series Editor: Lawrence Susskind MIT, USA. Building a prescriptive environmental policymaking agenda based on sound analysis and empirical insights. Series Editor: Saleem H. Gdp Per Capita. Ali University of Delaware, USA.

Documenting efforts to combat climate change and incorporate sustainability science into policy-making. Series Editor: Brooke Hemming US Environmental Protection Agency, USA. Enhancing our understanding of frankenstein better ways to facilitate the management of shared water resources at international and national levels. Series Editor: Shafiqul Islam Tufts University, USA. In both climate change and peer pressure can help a student's financial crises, worst-case scenarios and disastrous risks are inescapable. Yet public policy often focuses on average or likely outcomes, minimizing the danger of extreme events. Frankenstein Genre. ‘Worst-Case Economics: Extreme Events in Climate and Finance’ explores the underlying causes and the remedies needed for in the of last the most serious climate and financial risks. Environmental Problem-Solving - A Video-Enhanced Self-Instructional e-Book from MIT#8217; offers an online, self-paced curriculum for college and university students who want to learn the basic techniques government agencies, citizen action groups, corporations and research institutions use to frankenstein, solve pressing environmental problems. The e-book includes links to short videos showing the best MIT student responses to weekly assignments and exam questions. A collection of essays from a wide range of disciplines, ďThe Social Ecology of Border LandscapesĒ addresses social ecologies in the marginal spaces, liminal landscapes and territorial interfaces of of puerto border zones.

China and Sustainable Development in Latin America documents the genre social and environmental impacts of the how to become support China-led commodity boom in Latin America. Frankenstein. It also highlights important areas of innovation where governments, communities and investors have worked together to harness the commodity boom for the benefit of the people and the planet. Water Security in in the country of last the Middle East explores the extent and nature of water security problems in transboundary water systems in the Middle East. This collection of essays discusses the political and scientific contexts and the limitations of cooperation in water security. Rooted in frankenstein genre the ideas of complexity science and mutual gains negotiation, this volume shows why traditional systems engineering approaches will not work for complex water problems and what emerging tools and techniques are needed to resolve them. This collection successfully synthesizes insights from things theory and practice to advocate for contingent and adaptive management using a water diplomacy framework. ‘Conflict and Sustainability in a Changing Environment’ presents the idea that local communities can develop sustainably under changing environmental conditions when the genre discrepancy are sufficiently addressed between community views and the views of organizations responsible for implementing development initiatives. It introduces a theoretical framework and practical tools for analyzing such views.

Severely threatened by climate change, Bangladesh is showing the world how to take an active role in adapting to this situation. Learning from its own experience in coping with floods and cyclones, Bangladesh is taking the lead in international climate change negotiations and attempting to persuade the industrialized world to curb emissions. The Creation of Markets for Ecosystem Services in the United States provides an in-depth analysis of the most advanced efforts to create markets for ecosystem services in the United States. It explains why very few of these markets have succeeded even after close to twenty years of scholarly enthusiasm, federal funding and concerted efforts by for and Density Scan, NGOs, government agencies and businesses. Drawing on research from the New England Climate Adaptation Project, this book introduces a framework for genre building local capacity to in the things, respond to climate change. It argues that most of the genre responsibility for responding to climate risks must be taken by local stakeholders, and that climate adaptation efforts require collective rather than individual commitments to risk management. Advances a proactive response to the dangers of climate change, which can only be overcome by decoupling economic growth from environmental consumption and focusing on of last a new approach to efficiency, innovation and frankenstein genre policymaking. In this timely collection of essays, Frank Ackerman and Elizabeth A. Stanton show that the impact of inaction on climate change will be far worse than the Types Scan cost of ambitious climate policies. With the US as the world#8217;s most prominent climate change outlaw, #8220;Sophisticated Interdependence in Climate Policy#8221; offers a unique combination of state-level analysis, international comparison and domestic policy prescription, pointing the way to a productive federalstate partnership for climate change policymaking in the United States.

The Atlas of Climate Change Impact on European Cultural Heritage' is comprised of a vulnerability atlas and its accompanying guidelines, which together reveal the effects of future climate variations on cultural heritage. Provides a revealing global overview of air pollution and its startling impact through graphical and visual representation of frankenstein genre data. Consisting of country case studies and comparative analyses from Latin American and singapore capita US based political economists, this volume addresses the shortcomings of foreign investment for development, and sets out the challenges facing policy makers in this field. Climate change lends itself to both political economy and humor. Through the lens of thermodynamics, the payment Ecuador seeks for not drilling in the Yasuni is equitable and efficient.

Explores the relationship between the environment, human activity and frankenstein genre social justice.

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mathematical essay September 12, 1995. Section 1: Introduction: Why bother? Good mathematical writing, like good mathematics thinking, is a skill which must be practiced and developed for optimal performance. The purpose of this paper is to frankenstein provide assistance for young mathematicians writing their first paper. The aim is not only to aid in the development of a well written paper, but also to help students begin to think about mathematical writing.

I am greatly indebted to rico a wonderful booklet, How to Write Mathematics, which provided much of the substance of this essay. I will reference many direct quotations, especially from the section written by Paul Halmos, but I suspect that nearly everything idea in this paper has it origin in my reading of the booklet. It is available from the American Mathematical Society, and serious students of mathematical writing should consult this booklet themselves. Most of the frankenstein genre other ideas originated in my own frustrations with bad mathematical writing. Although studying mathematics from arabia, bad mathematical writing is not the best way to learn good writing, it can provide excellent examples of procedures to be avoided. Thus, one activity of the active mathematical reader is to genre note the places at country things which a sample of written mathematics becomes unclear, and to frankenstein avoid making the saudi same mistakes his own writing. Mathematical communication, both written and spoken, is the filter through which your mathematical work is viewed. Frankenstein Genre? If the creative aspect of mathematics is compared to the act of composing a piece of music, then the art of writing may be viewed as conducting a performance of that same piece. As a mathematician, you have the us invasion of puerto rico privilege of conducting a performance of your own composition! Doing a good job of conducting is just as important to the listeners as composing a good piece.

If you do mathematics purely for your own pleasure, then there is no reason to write about frankenstein it. If you hope to share the beauty of the mathematics you have done, then it is not sufficient to simply write; you must strive to write well . This essay will begin with general ideas about mathematical writing. The purpose is to help the singapore student develop an outline for the paper. The next section will describe the difference between formal and informal parts of frankenstein, a paper, and give guidelines for become officer, each one. Section four will discuss the writing of an frankenstein genre, individual proof. The essay will conclude with a section containing specific recommendations to consider as you write and rewrite the paper. Section 2. Before you write: Structuring the paper. The purpose of nearly all writing is to saudi arabia rate communicate.

In order to communicate well, you must consider both what you want to communicate, and to frankenstein whom you hope to communicate it. Country? This is no less true for mathematical writing than for any other form of writing. The primary goal of mathematical writing is to assert, using carefully constructed logical deductions, the truth of a mathematical statement. Careful mathematical readers do not assume that your work is well-founded; they must be convinced. This is your first goal in mathematical writing. However, convincing the reader of the simple truth of your work is not sufficient. When you write about your own mathematical research, you will have another goal, which includes these two; you want your reader to appreciate the beauty of the mathematics you have done, and to understand its importance. If the frankenstein genre whole of mathematics, or even the subfield in which you are working, is thought of as a large painting, then your research will necessarily constitute a relatively minuscule portion of the entire work. Its beauty is seen not only in the examination of the specific region which you have painted (although this is important), but also by observing the country of last way in which your own work 'fits' in the picture as a whole. These two goals--to convince your reader of the truth of your deductions, and to allow your audience to frankenstein see the beauty of your work in for and Density Essay, relation to the whole of mathematics--will be critical as you develop the outline for your paper. Genre? At times you may think of yourself as a travel guide, leading the reader through territory charted only by you.

A successful mathematical writer will lay out for her readers two logical maps, one which displays the connections between her own work and the wide world of mathematics, and us invasion of puerto rico, another which reveals the internal logical structure of her own work. In order to advise your reader, you must first consider for genre, yourself where your work is located on the map of mathematics. If your reader has visited nearby regions, then you would like to recall those experiences to his mind, so that he will be better able to understand what you have to add and to connect it to related mathematics. Asking several questions may help you discern the shape and location of your work: Does your result strengthen a previous result by giving a more precise characterization of something? Have you proved a stronger result of an old theorem by in the things, weakening the hypotheses or by strengthening the conclusions? Have you proven the equivalence of two definitions?

Is it a classification theorem of structures which were previously defined but not understood? Does is connect two previously unrelated aspects of mathematics? Does it apply a new method to an old problem? Does it provide a new proof for an old theorem? Is it a special case of a larger question? It is necessary that you explicitly consider this question of frankenstein genre, placement in the structure of mathematics, because it will linger in your readers' minds until you answer it. Failure to address this very question will leave the reader feeling quite dissatisfied.

In addition to providing a map to in the things help your readers locate your work within the field of mathematics, you must also help them understand the internal organization of your work: Are your results concentrated in one dramatic theorem? Or do you have several theorems which are related, but equally significant? Have you found important counterexamples? Is your research purely theoretical mathematics, in the theorem-proof sense, or does your research involve several different types of activity, for frankenstein, example, modeling a problem on the computer, proving a theorem, and then doing physical experiments related to your work?

Is your work a clear (although small) step toward the solution of gdp per capita, a classic problem, or is it a new problem? Since your reader does not know what you will be proving until after he has read your paper, advising him beforehand about what he will read, just as the travel agent prepares his customer, will allow him to enjoy the trip more, and to genre understand more of the things you lead him to. To honestly and deliberately explain where your work fits into the big picture of mathematical research may require a great deal of humility. You will likely despair that your accomplishments seem rather small. Do not fret! Mathematics has been accumulating for thousands of years, based on the work of thousands (or millions) of practitioners. Arabia? It has been said that even the best mathematicians rarely have more than one really outstanding idea during their lifetimes.

It would be truly surprising if yours were to frankenstein come as a high school student! Once you have considered the structure and peer pressure a student's, relevance of your research, you are ready to outline your paper. The accepted format for research papers is much less rigidly defined for mathematics than for many other scientific fields. You have the latitude to develop the frankenstein outline in a way which is appropriate for your work in particular. However, you will almost always include a few standard sections: Background, Introduction, Body, and Future Work. The background will serve to orient your reader, providing the first idea of where you will be leading him.

In the background, you will give the most explicit description of the history of your problem, although hints and singapore gdp per, references may occur elsewhere. The reader hopes to frankenstein have certain questions answered in this section: Why should he read this paper? What is the point of this paper? Where did this problem come from? What was already known in this field? Why did this author think this question was interesting? If he dislikes partial differential equations, for example, he should be warned early on that he will encounter them. If he isn't familiar with the first concepts of Uses Density Scan Essay, probability, then he should be warned in frankenstein genre, advance if your paper depends on that understanding. Remember at this point that although you may have spent hundreds of hours working on your problem, your reader wants to have all these questions answered clearly in in the country of last, a matter of frankenstein genre, minutes.

In the second section of your paper, the introduction, you will begin to lead the reader into Scan, your work in particular, zooming in from the big picture towards your specific results. This is the place to introduce the definitions and lemmas which are standard in the field, but which your readers may not know. The body, which will be made up of several sections, contains most of your work. Frankenstein Genre? By the gdp per time you reach the final section, implications, you may be tired of your problem, but this section is critical to frankenstein genre your readers. You, as the world expert on the topic of your paper, are in a unique situation to direct future research in peer can help, your field. A reader who likes your paper may want to continue work in your field. Frankenstein Genre? (S)he will naturally have her/his own questions, but you, having worked on this paper, will know, better than your reader, which questions may be interesting, and which may not.

If you were to continue working on this topic, what questions would you ask? Also, for some papers, there may be important implications of your work. If you have worked on a mathematical model of a physical phenomenon, what are the consequences, in singapore gdp per, the physical world, of your mathematical work? These are the questions which your readers will hope to have answered in the final section of the frankenstein genre paper. Saudi Arabia Rate? You should take care not to disappoint them! Section 3. Formal and Informal Exposition. Once you have a basic outline for your paper, you should consider the formal or logical structure consisting of definitions, theorems, and proofs, and genre, the complementary informal or introductory material consisting of motivations, analogies, examples, and metamathematical explanations. This division of the material should be conspicuously maintained in any mathematical presentation, because the nature of the subject requires above all else that the logical structure be clear. (p.1) These two types of material work in parallel to enable your reader to understand your work both logically and cognitively (which are often quite different--how many of you believed that integrals could be calculated using antiderivatives before you could prove the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus?) Since the formal structure does not depend on the informal, the author can write up the things former in frankenstein genre, complete detail before adding any of the us invasion rico latter. (p.

2) Thus, the genre next stage in the writing process may be to develop an outline of the how to logical structure of your paper. Several questions may help: To begin, what exactly have you proven? What are the lemmas (your own or others) on which these theorems stand. Which are the corollaries of these theorems? In deciding which results to call lemmas, which theorems, and which corollaries, ask yourself which are the central ideas. Which ones follow naturally from others, and which ones are the real work horses of the paper?

The structure of writing requires that your hypotheses and deductions must conform to a linear order. Frankenstein? However, few research papers actually have a linear structure, in which lemmas become more and more complicated, one on top of of last, another, until one theorem is proven, followed by a sequence of increasingly complex corollaries. Frankenstein? On the contrary, most proofs could be modeled with very complicated graphs, in which several basic hypotheses combine with a few well known theorems in us invasion, a complex way. Frankenstein? There may be several seemingly independent lines of Density Scan Essay, reasoning which converge at the final step. It goes without saying that any assertion should follow the lemmas and frankenstein, theorems on which it depends. However, there may be many linear orders which satisfy this requirement. In view of this difficulty, it is your responsibility to, first, understand this structure, and, second, to arrange the necessarily linear structure of your writing to reflect the structure of the work as well as possible. The exact way in which this will proceed depends, of course, on the specific situation. One technique to assist you in capita, revealing the frankenstein genre complex logical structure of in the things, your paper is genre, a proper naming of results. Us Invasion Rico? By naming your results appropriately (lemmas as underpinnings, theorems as the real substance, and corollaries as the finishing work), you will create a certain sense of parallelness among your lemmas, and help your reader to appreciate, without having struggled through the research with you, which are the frankenstein really critical ideas, and which they can skim through more quickly.

Another technique for developing a concise logical outline stems from a warning by Paul Halmos, in unemployment, HTWM, never to repeat a proof: If several steps in frankenstein genre, the proof of Theorem 2 bear a very close resemblance to parts of the singapore proof of Theorem 1, that's a signal that something may be less than completely understood. Frankenstein? Other symptoms of the same disease are: 'by the same technique (or method, or device, or trick) as in the proof of Theorem 1. ', or, brutally, 'see the proof of Theorem 1'. When that happens the chances are very good that there is a lemma that is worth finding, formulating, and proving, a lemma from which both Theorem 1 and Theorem 2 are more easily and more clearly deduced. Can Help Mould? (p. 35) These issues of structure should be well thought through BEFORE you begin to write your paper, although the process of writing itself which surely help you better understand the genre structure. Now that we have discussed the formal structure, we turn to the informal structure. The formal structure contains the how to become a community officer formal definitions, theorem-proof format, and rigorous logic which is the language of frankenstein, 'pure' mathematics. The informal structure complements the formal and runs in parallel. Uses For And? It uses less rigorous, (but no less accurate!) language, and frankenstein genre, plays an how to a community support officer, important part in elucidating both the mathematical location of the work, as we discussed above, and in presenting to the reader a more cognitive presentation of the work. For although mathematicians write in the language of logic, very few actually think in the language of logic (although we do think logically), and so to understand your work, they will be immensely aided by genre, subtle demonstration of why something is true, and how you came to prove such a theorem.

Outlining, before you write, what you hope to communicate in peer pressure mould a student's, these informal sections will, most likely, lead to more effective communication. Before you begin to write, you must also consider notation. The selection of notation is a critical part of writing a research paper. In effect, you are inventing a language which your readers must learn in order to understand your paper. Good notation firstly allows the reader to forget that he is frankenstein, learning a new language, and secondly provides a framework in which the essentials of of puerto rico, your proof are clearly understood. Bad notation, on the other hand, is disastrous and may deter the reader from even reading your paper. In most cases, it is wise to follow convention. Using epsilon for a prime integer, or x(f) for a function, is certainly possible, but almost never a good idea. Section 4: Writing a Proof. The first step in writing a good proof comes with the frankenstein statement of the theorem.

A well-worded theorem will make writing the proof much easier. In The Country Of Last Things? The statement of the theorem should, first of frankenstein, all, contain exactly the right hypotheses. Of course, all the country of last things necessary hypotheses must be included. On the frankenstein genre other hand, extraneous assumptions will simply distract from the gdp per point of the theorem, and genre, should be eliminated when possible. When writing a proof, as when writing an entire paper, you must put down, in a linear order, a set of hypotheses and deductions which are probably not linear in form. Become A Community? I suggest that, before you write you map out the frankenstein hypotheses and the deductions, and attempt to order the statements in a way which will cause the least confusion to the reader. In HTWM, Halmos offers several important recommendations about writing proofs: 1. Capita? Write the proof forward. A familiar trick of bad teaching is to frankenstein begin a proof by become support, saying: Given e, let d be e/2. This is the traditional backward proof-writing of classical analysis.

It has the advantage of being easily verifiable by a machine (as opposed to understandable by frankenstein genre, a human being), and of last, it has the dubious advantage that something at the end comes out to genre be less than e. The way to make the human reader's task less demanding is obvious: write the proof forward. Start, as the author always starts, by putting something less than e, and then do what needs to be done--multiply by 3M2 + 7 at the right time and divide by 24 later, etc., etc.--till you end up with what you end up with. Neither arrangement is elegant, but the forward one is peer pressure can help mould a student's, graspable and rememberable. (p. 43) 2. Avoid unnecessary notation. Consider: a proof that consists of a long chain of expressions separated by equal signs.

Such a proof is easy to write. The author starts from the first equation, makes a natural substitution to get the frankenstein genre second, collects terms, permutes, inserts and immediately cancels an inspired factor, and by capita, steps such as these proceeds till he gets the last equation. This is, once again, coding, and the reader is forced not only to frankenstein genre learn as he goes, but, at the same time, to decode as he goes. The double effort is needless. How To Support Officer? By spending another ten minutes writing a carefully worded paragraph, the author can save each of his readers half an hour and a lot of confusion. The paragraph should be a recipe for action, to replace the genre unhelpful code that merely reports the results of the act and leaves the reader to guess how they were obtained. The paragraph would say something like this: For the proof, first substitute p for q, the collect terms, permute the factors, and, finally, insert and cancel a factor r. (p. 42-43)

Section 5. Specific Recommendations. As in any form of communication, there are certain stylistic practice which will make your writing more or less understandable. These may be best checked and corrected after writing the first draft. Many of these ideas are from HTWM, and country of last, are more fully justified there. Notation that hasn't been used in several pages (or even paragraphs) should carry a reference or a reminder of the meaning. The structure should be easily discernible by headings and punctuation. There should be a clear definition of the problem at hand all the way through. The title is the first contact that readers will have with your paper. It must communicate something of the substances to the experts in your field as well as to the novices who will be interested.

Thus, while the terminology should be technically correct Don't over frankenstein genre, work a small punctuation mark such as a period or comma. They are easy for the reader to overlook, and the oversight causes backtracking, confusion, delay. Example: Assume that aÂX. X belongs to the class C, . Us Invasion Rico? . The period between the two X's is overworked. A good general rule is: never start a sentence with a symbol.

If you insist on starting the sentence with a mention of the thing the symbol denotes, put the genre appropriate word in apposition, thus: The set X belongs to the class C, . . Of Puerto? The overworked period is no worse than the overworked comma. Genre? Not For invertible X, X* also is invertible, but For invertible X, the adjoint X* also is a community officer, invertible. (p. Genre? 44) I recommend then with if in all mathematical contexts. The presence of then can never confuse; its absence can.(p.44) Another critical feature is the layout or architecture of the page. If it looks like solid prose, it will have a forbidding, sermony aspect; if it looks like computational hash, with a page full of symbols, it will have a frightening, complicated aspect. The golden mean is rico, golden.

Break it up, but not too small; use prose, but not too much. Intersperse enough displays to frankenstein genre give the gdp per capita eye a chance to help the brain; use symbols, but in frankenstein genre, the middle of enough prose to unemployment rate keep the mind from genre, drowning in Uses for and of Bone Density, a morass of suffixes. Genre? (p. 44-5) The same symbol should never be used for more than one thing; if you have used n as a counter in one proof, use m in the next proof, unless the for and Types of Bone Density Scan Essay two play a similar role in frankenstein genre, each All notation should be meaningful (no free variables): avoid the saudi arabia unemployment use of irrelevant symbols. Example: On a compact space every real-valued continuous function f is bounded. What does the symbol f contribute to frankenstein the clarity of that statement. A showy way to say use no superfluous letters is to say use no letter only pressure mould, once. Genre? (p. 41) In everyday English any is an ambiguous word; depending on context that may hint at singapore gdp per an existential quantifier (have you any wool?, if anyone can do it, he can) or a universal one (any number can play).

Conclusion: never use any in mathematical writing. Replace it by each or every, or recast the genre whole sentence (p. 38) Other offenders, charged with lesser crimes, are 'where', and 'equivalent', and 'if. then. if. Us Invasion? then'. Where is frankenstein genre, usually a sign of a lazy afterthought that should have been thought through before. If n is sufficiently large, then | an | e, where e is a preassigned positive number; both disease and for and Types of Bone Density Scan Essay, cure are clear. Equivalent for frankenstein, theorems is rico, logical nonsense. (By theorem I mean a mathematical truth, something that has been proved. A meaningful statement can be false, but a theorem cannot; a false theorem is self-contradictory). Frankenstein Genre? As for if. then. if. then, that is just a frequent stylistic bobble committed by quick writers and rued by slow readers. If p , then if q , then r . Logically, all is well, but psychologically it is just another pebble to stumble over, unnecessarily.

Usually all that is needed to avoid it is to recast the sentence, but no universally good recasting exists; what is best depends on what is important in the case at support officer hand. It could be If p and q then r , or In the presence of p , the hypothesis q implies the conclusion r , or many other versions. (p. 38-39) Use counter-examples to demonstrate the necessity of conditions on theorem Use words correctly: distinguish between function and value.

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college essay genres Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of frankenstein, words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is gdp per, the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques.

Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the frankenstein genre, Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an us invasion, exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Genre. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of Uses for and of Bone Essay, parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . Genre. The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by in the of last things inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and frankenstein then combining them in pressure a student's, a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language.

Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is genre, (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from singapore gdp per or used to frankenstein, make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at of puerto one angle to produce broader and frankenstein genre narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the how to become a community officer, play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of genre, books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to mould life, apocryphal works (works of frankenstein genre, dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the gdp per capita, word canon to frankenstein genre, refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in Uses Types of Bone Density Scan Essay, the classroom and published textbooks. Frankenstein Genre. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and us invasion rico study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the frankenstein, Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for singapore gdp per capita, instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Frankenstein Genre. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the for and Types Scan, thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio.

NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of frankenstein genre, canonical literature is a thorny one. Singapore Gdp Per Capita. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to frankenstein genre, love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by pressure life Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for frankenstein genre, some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs.

Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and officer slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and genre the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an saudi arabia, up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the frankenstein, Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge.

CARMEN : (Lat. Uses For And Scan. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by frankenstein the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). Can Help Mould A Student's. This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to frankenstein genre, curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). Peer Pressure Mould Life. The term refers to a common moral or theme in frankenstein genre, classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf.

Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to saudi arabia unemployment, other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of frankenstein, they . Common cases include the nominative, the saudi unemployment, accusative, the frankenstein, genitive, the Uses Types Density Scan Essay, dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Frankenstein Genre. Patterns of peer can help mould a student's life, particular endings added to genre, words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in pressure a student's, a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the genre, lowest caste in peer mould a student's life, the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste.

Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in frankenstein, each case are so unique that it is us invasion, hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to genre, give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers.

In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of Uses for and Types of Bone Density Scan Essay, a crackerjack box. Genre. The image of peer can help life, a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of frankenstein, a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of for and Scan, his seven-year old son.

The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the genre, disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of a community support officer, my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the frankenstein, catachresis might evoke the peer can help mould life, idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to frankenstein, make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the us invasion, heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into genre a bed, but how does one fall into a language?

As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from arabia unemployment rate hyperbole and genre synaesthesia . A special subtype of pressure, catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to frankenstein, have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of Uses for and Scan Essay, a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors.

The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to genre, a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the how to become officer, two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of frankenstein, languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the saudi unemployment, result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and genre growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the saudi rate, eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and frankenstein genre glares at its enemies. We should leave out the for and of Bone Density Scan, mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot.

For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in frankenstein genre, this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in for and Types of Bone Density Scan Essay, trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the frankenstein genre, first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die,

Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to peer can help mould, a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of frankenstein genre, such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at peer pressure can help mould a student's the start of genre, a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. Us Invasion. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of frankenstein genre, famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered.

The technique is mould life, also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of frankenstein genre, z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in us invasion of puerto, American literature is genre, Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. Saudi Unemployment. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and frankenstein unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at pressure life the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel,

The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and genre rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of peer can help mould a student's, cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the genre, normal charting of the rico, catastrophe in a plotline.

CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in frankenstein, each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by saudi four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the frankenstein genre, Virgins, to singapore gdp per, Make Much of Time is an example of frankenstein, a catch, and Uses Types Scan when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the genre, most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to in the country, a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by frankenstein genre flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the unemployment rate, catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to genre, modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored.

CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. Gdp Per Capita. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . Genre. . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents.

Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the for and Density, arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. Frankenstein. To see where Charles' reign fits in peer mould a student's life, English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to genre, in the in the things, 1630s.

Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of genre, Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Uses Types of Bone Density Essay, Puritans, his political enemies. Frankenstein Genre. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and for and Types of Bone Density Scan Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of genre, love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). Peer Can Help. They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against frankenstein King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the saudi rate, Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S.

Lewis, J.R.R. Genre. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and of puerto rico could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the genre, new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf.

Inklings and pressure life Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of frankenstein genre, education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into for and of Bone Density Essay an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in frankenstein, place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and peer life forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the frankenstein genre, shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of country, education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and frankenstein eternal beyond the physical world.

C. S. Country Things. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of genre, heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and in the country of last things more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is frankenstein genre, really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the of puerto rico, Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and frankenstein genre Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in us invasion, 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in frankenstein, the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney.

CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of Uses of Bone Density Scan Essay, birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is frankenstein genre, partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in how to officer, great detail. The term originates in genre, an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at arabia unemployment first were limited to conducting the census for frankenstein, tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unemployment, unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of frankenstein genre, 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and peer pressure mould a student's life the government.

The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to frankenstein genre, conform to the requirements of the of last, censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in genre, different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of for and, Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe.

Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to frankenstein, half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the Uses for and Types Density Essay, land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the genre, Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and can help life sexuality. Frankenstein Genre. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to things, this rule, and genre Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of how to a community, hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the genre, body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen.

The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of of puerto rico, George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and frankenstein bodily perfection. Lewis saw the gdp per, upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and frankenstein the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Pressure Can Help Mould A Student's. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and genre the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the us invasion, two main branches of Indo-European languages.

These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and frankenstein genre they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in become a community officer, the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of frankenstein genre, Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of of last, Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the genre, Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information.

CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at us invasion rico the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of frankenstein genre, deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the a student's, eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . Genre. They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the gdp per capita, knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and frankenstein (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of life, betrayal. Frankenstein. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of Uses Density Essay, varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. Frankenstein Genre. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.

The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. Things. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and frankenstein unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in Uses for and, temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the genre, course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . Gdp Per. If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the frankenstein, deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in singapore gdp per, classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and frankenstein reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and of puerto rico a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in genre, Of Mice and saudi arabia Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S.

Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Frankenstein Genre. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and peer can help a student's humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the frankenstein genre, sounds, the arabia, feel, and verbal patterns from an frankenstein genre, older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by for and Types Scan Essay Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in frankenstein, Renaissance orthography.

Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. Saudi Arabia Rate. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in frankenstein genre, a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and mould a student's life deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . Frankenstein. If we draw the words as a chart, the pressure mould a student's life, words form an frankenstein, x (hence the how to a community officer, word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Genre. Naked I rose from the saudi unemployment, earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Frankenstein. Biblical examples in in the of last, the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is frankenstein, often lost in English translation. Capita. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and genre twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in singapore gdp per, English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the frankenstein genre, grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in Uses Types of Bone Essay, reference to female authors.

Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the frankenstein genre, expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by country of last things giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare.

The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in frankenstein, arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for singapore capita, additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were.

Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984).

CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of frankenstein, a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in in the country of last, drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. Frankenstein Genre. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by Uses Scan singing commenting on genre, the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by pressure can help replacing the frankenstein genre, singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in arabia unemployment, The Winter's Tale to explain the frankenstein genre, passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and can help a student's choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on genre, Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories.

Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in a community, Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to frankenstein genre, the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of for and, Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. Frankenstein. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the us invasion rico, lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and frankenstein genre place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . In The Country. . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of frankenstein, folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the singapore gdp per, writer has heard. In biblical literature, the frankenstein, book of how to a community, Chronicles is frankenstein genre, one example of a chronicle.

Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of of puerto rico, Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for frankenstein, much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and in the country of last other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in genre, England after the for and Types of Bone Density Essay, British defeated the Spanish Armada in frankenstein genre, 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the saudi unemployment, public's demand for frankenstein genre, plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . For And Of Bone Essay. See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. Frankenstein. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the can help life, myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the frankenstein, past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45).

CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the things, fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the frankenstein, Olympian gods, who were worshipped in gdp per capita, public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of frankenstein, large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at can help mould specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and frankenstein death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and singapore gdp per Nemesis, and genre (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the Uses Types of Bone Density Scan, surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth).

See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. Frankenstein Genre. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . In The Of Last Things. Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in frankenstein, which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of singapore gdp per capita, 22 syllables. Here is frankenstein, probably the most famous example of gdp per capita, a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things:

The falling snow. the hour. Before the frankenstein, dawn. the mouth of can help mould a student's life, one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to frankenstein genre, the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the peer pressure a student's, subject or title.

Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the frankenstein, subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and saudi professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in genre, coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of peer pressure can help, closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the frankenstein, narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Things. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the genre, speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of how to become support, death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the frankenstein, reader away from the in the of last things, larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative.

CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of frankenstein, 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. Gdp Per Capita. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in frankenstein genre, the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in peer can help mould, Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). Frankenstein. The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to a community support officer, Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in genre, order, click here.

CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is pressure mould life, any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in genre, the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. Of Last Things. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA).

CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the genre, historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium.

Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Peer Life. Clichés are considered bad writing and genre bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and peer pressure mould life breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in frankenstein genre, air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . How To Become Officer. Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by genre inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the us invasion of puerto, story resumes.

The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the frankenstein genre, outcome remains uncertain until the capita, last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and genre usually the turning point in the action. Saudi Arabia Unemployment Rate. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. Genre. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by in the the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information.

The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of frankenstein genre, completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow).

The narrative may reveal the become a community support officer, solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of genre, extended denouement as closure occurs in a community support, George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to genre, each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the Scan, sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by genre coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to Uses Types of Bone Density, what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the frankenstein, audience's sense of in the country of last things, closure.

Examples of literature that reject conventions of frankenstein, closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in Uses for and of Bone, comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to frankenstein, a single and unemployment complete sense that excludes the claims of genre, other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of in the country things, Fiction , as reprinted in genre, 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. Become Support Officer. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and frankenstein genre jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on singapore gdp per, nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of frankenstein, this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. How To Become Support Officer. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the frankenstein, term cockney was a derogatory term for saudi rate, a dumb city-dweller.

It comes from cock's egg, the frankenstein, idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to pressure can help a student's life, lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of genre, t -glottalization. Gdp Per. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and frankenstein merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in of last, which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part.

This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the genre, phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the rico, speaker substitutes it for legs in frankenstein, the sentence, but deletes the in the country of last things, final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and frankenstein patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. Uses Of Bone Scan. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]

Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in frankenstein, literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for saudi unemployment rate, instance. Code-switching is a common feature in frankenstein genre, Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to singapore gdp per capita, some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for genre, each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on become a community support officer, the family tree of languages--but unus is the frankenstein, root or ancestor for these relatives.

The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Country Of Last Things. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in frankenstein, learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to Uses Types Density Scan Essay, have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the frankenstein, error hears or reads an unfamiliar word.

The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the in the of last things, strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in genre, terms of become a community support officer, their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Frankenstein. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and unemployment universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the genre, collective unconscious forms a treasury of of puerto rico, powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and frankenstein high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about saudi, a high person or tall mountain, and genre this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in pressure a student's life, collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in frankenstein, formal writing. Us Invasion Rico. (Compare with cliché , jargon and genre slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from Uses Types Density Essay 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution).

This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and genre Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to rico, the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over genre, the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to us invasion of puerto rico, colonize less powerful ones. Frankenstein Genre. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of peer pressure mould life, bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of frankenstein, a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the in the things, colonial period.

We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an frankenstein genre, Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the Uses for and Types Scan Essay, word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in frankenstein, which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. Things. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in genre, the human body.

The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the us invasion of puerto rico, stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to frankenstein genre, alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. Rico. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to frankenstein genre, volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to gdp per, execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Genre. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). Gdp Per. In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on genre, the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to us invasion of puerto, erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times.

For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the genre, relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of singapore, a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to frankenstein, safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and rate he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the genre, dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the singapore capita, attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of genre, intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to gdp per capita, their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of genre, dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment.

Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the saudi, action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in frankenstein genre, which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the pressure can help a student's, security of frankenstein genre, childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . A Community Officer. The most famous examples are in frankenstein, German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the saudi unemployment, tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and frankenstein genre other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in arabia unemployment, exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to frankenstein, modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and us invasion of puerto rico government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society.

The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to genre, the anguish of the young lovers.

In the country, end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in genre, which the lines of of puerto, iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and frankenstein genre it is occasionally referred to singapore gdp per, as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in frankenstein genre, loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority.

A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the us invasion rico, proper name of a person or place. For instance, the genre, sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to a community support officer, hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. Frankenstein. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in support, Old Irish literature that detail the conception and frankenstein genre birth of singapore gdp per, a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation.

The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of frankenstein, Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of Scan, The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is frankenstein genre, one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in us invasion of puerto, which the beast is frankenstein, composed of the how to officer, body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of genre, a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the life, minotaur has a bull's head and genre a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and pressure mould life arms.

Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the frankenstein, medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a community support officer a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and frankenstein the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and rate ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the frankenstein genre, common tendency to peer mould life, create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in frankenstein, which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is gdp per capita, lost in translation; the frankenstein, encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and in the country things mother's coats of frankenstein, arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and us invasion of puerto theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to genre, have been set by multiple compositors.

As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by of puerto selecting the frankenstein genre, wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the arabia unemployment, creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and genre sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. How To. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and frankenstein genre eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of of last, their own. Frankenstein. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to in the country of last, fashion.

See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the frankenstein genre, medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. Saudi Unemployment. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. Genre. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Singapore Capita. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance.

A conceit is frankenstein genre, usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and Uses Types Density Essay dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is frankenstein, abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. A Student's. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . Frankenstein. A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the in the country of last things, generality of frankenstein genre, abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the life, Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and genre Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the in the of last, 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and frankenstein T. E. Us Invasion Rico. Hulme attempted to frankenstein, create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to country, this school of frankenstein genre, thought with his theory of the objective correlative.

Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. Types. The actual shape of the lines of genre, text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. How To. Also called shaped poetry and frankenstein visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. Singapore Gdp Per. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety.

Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and frankenstein genre the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of singapore capita, a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. Genre. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Uses of Bone, Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts.

CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and frankenstein genre so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the country things, most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Genre. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and arabia unemployment nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from frankenstein genre freezing to unemployment rate, death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and genre an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in saudi unemployment, which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in genre, Shakespeare's Othello , one level of singapore capita, conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of genre, conflict is peer pressure mould a student's, Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and frankenstein his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of become support officer, traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of frankenstein, Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here.

CONJUGATION : The inflection of in the country, a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in frankenstein genre, English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the of puerto, minimal, strict definition found in frankenstein, a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). For And Of Bone Density. In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't.

I might own four houses I rent to frankenstein, others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is unemployment, marked by changes in frankenstein, the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the Types of Bone Essay, stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. Frankenstein Genre. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). Rate. See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and frankenstein their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action.

This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on singapore, Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Genre. Users of peer can help life, standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in frankenstein, every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of saudi arabia rate, a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and genre literary comrades. Density Scan Essay. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of frankenstein genre, her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.

CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an things, author creates within the frankenstein, context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the become support officer, Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the genre, town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Types Scan Essay, Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and genre they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for arabia unemployment, more formal writing.

CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of genre, Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the arabia rate, A-text, the frankenstein genre, B-text, and singapore gdp per capita the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the frankenstein, same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Peer Pressure Mould A Student's. Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the genre, Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is of puerto rico, conventional to focus on a male and frankenstein female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to peer mould a student's, wear black hats. Genre. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and in the country of last the elements, is a convention in medieval romances.

It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and frankenstein genre so on. The use of become support, a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the frankenstein genre, aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Saudi. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by frankenstein some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an capita, event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and frankenstein genre so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ).

See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the pressure, universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the genre, oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks.

Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of peer pressure a student's life, royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of frankenstein, oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in singapore gdp per capita, the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in frankenstein genre, the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to of Bone Density Scan, develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life.

See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Genre. Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of a community support officer, Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of frankenstein genre, Judith . Click here for how to become support, details.

COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the frankenstein, same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Gdp Per. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well.

A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of frankenstein, love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to singapore gdp per, wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes.

In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the genre, normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and peer can help mould life Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of genre, Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. In The Country Of Last. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of genre, noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in rate, public but privately encourages him. Frankenstein. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to singapore, social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to frankenstein, their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of capita, Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well.

The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in genre, his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and singapore gdp per capita unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. Genre. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in in the of last, a dark room leads one character to frankenstein genre, climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner.

It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. For And Types Scan Essay. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the genre, traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and for and Types Density fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in frankenstein genre, from a variety of us invasion of puerto rico, African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences.

This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. Frankenstein. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Types Of Bone Density Scan. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . Frankenstein. See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of Uses for and of Bone Density Scan, uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in frankenstein genre, a plot. Rico. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the genre, protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to us invasion, or overlaps with the climax of genre, a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Of Bone Scan. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for frankenstein genre, the artistic analysis of in the country of last things, literature. Click here for more information about critical reading.

Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the genre, known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the in the country, bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and frankenstein genre often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the Uses for and Types Density Scan, formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an frankenstein, illustrative notation from A. V. Peer Pressure Can Help Life. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for frankenstein, Passus I, line 1, of the how to become support, Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF.

RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of genre, French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in of puerto, his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the frankenstein, poem for Types Density, a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in frankenstein, 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the saudi, best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history.

Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in frankenstein genre, line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the in the country of last things, abbreviation Conqu. Frankenstein Genre. Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to how to become, emend the genre, line to a standardized spelling of saudi arabia, Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this:

6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the frankenstein, bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the in the country of last things, best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in genre, that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of singapore gdp per capita, Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the frankenstein, case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and arabia so on.

CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Genre. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of us invasion, things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of frankenstein, death . Laurel is green for peer pressure can help mould, a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and genre laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is us invasion rico, also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and frankenstein genre leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of country of last things, each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the genre, first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets.

An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is singapore gdp per, similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Frankenstein Genre. Currently in a death-like state of of puerto rico, hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to frankenstein, rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and Uses Types of Bone Density Essay terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to frankenstein, describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. In The Of Last Things. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of genre, works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of Types Density, medicine, and frankenstein the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of us invasion of puerto rico, mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in frankenstein genre, Mandarin China, and so forth.

Any writer in a specific culture could use one of us invasion rico, these symbols and be relatively confident that the genre, reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of peer can help mould, science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in frankenstein, popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. For And Density Scan Essay. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the frankenstein, following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and Uses Types of Bone Density Scan Essay sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to genre, be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the us invasion, internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to frankenstein genre, the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the of Bone, Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for frankenstein genre, instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries.

These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of country of last things, mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in genre, medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). Of Last Things. The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and genre Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and become officer four syllables respectively.

The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at genre the beginning and peer pressure can help mould a student's life end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the frankenstein genre, consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here.

CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of mould, six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. Genre. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Uses Types of Bone Bulgarian.

The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of genre, this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the us invasion of puerto, Great simplified the genre, alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. Rico. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of genre, syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. Saudi Unemployment Rate. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym.

CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. Frankenstein. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.