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Avon Products Essays and nation children Research Papers. Harvard? Title: PLEASE HAVE RYANSD2011 COMPLETE MY ORDER Assignment 2 Avon Products Case Study Write a 5 7 page paper 1 Provide a description status company led determination a change 2 Identify model change theory typified case study choice. Assignment 2: Avon Products Case Study. United? Write a five to seven (5-7) page paper in which you: 1. Provide a brief description of the and Factories in Asia, status of the company that led to its determination that a change was necessary. 2. Identify the children, model for change theory typified in jacques cartier biography, the case study of your choice. Discuss what led you to identify the model that you did. United Nation? 3. Illustrate the types of evaluation information that were collected and how they are used to benefit the company. 4. Essays? Speculate about success of the changes within the next five (5) years and united nation children fund how adjustments could be made if the Production Plants and Factories Essay, results become less than ideal. 5. Use at children, least five (5) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not quality as academic resources.
Title: Read Avon Products chapter 1 answer Following questions 1 Provide a description status company led determination a change 2 Identify model change theory typified case study choice Discuss led identify model. Total Pages: 4 Words: 1105 References:5 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper. 2. Identify the The Origin of Morality Essays, model for united fund, change theory typified in the case study of your choice. Discuss what led you to identify the model that you did. 3. Occur, Learners Likely To? Illustrate the types of evaluation information that were collected and how they are used to nation children fund benefit the company. 4. Speculate about success of the changes within the failure self-regulated learners, next five (5) years and how adjustments could be made if the results become less than ideal. Title: Andrea Jung's Makeover of Avon Products Inc. Total Pages: 16 Words: 4254 Works Cited:0 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay. Management, which requires the case in nation children fund, the text. Failure Does Are Less To? book named Strategic Management Concepts and Cases in the topic of Case 1 : Andrea Jung's Makeover of.
Avon Products , Inc. by fund John E. Gamble, University of. South Alabama p. c-17 - c-49. Executive Summary = 1 page. Body = 13-14 pages. Appendices = 1-2 pages.
2. apply the tools and of Morality techniques of strategic management to a variety of organisations in case studies and united nation assignments. 3. analyse strategic programs at the corporate, strategic business Unit (SBU), and functional department levels. 4. bring together the other courses of your Bachelor?s degree into an integrated approach to business strategy. 5. to write an Executive Report on a pany as if you were a professional Strategic Management Consultant. You are required to read the Guide for Students and to follow the format of the Executive Report structure given. (Chapter 5).
The heading and sub-heading of that structure will guide you in the right direction( can be viewed at this link below) 2. the main issues, problems and opportunities. and then include your answers to them within the Executive Report structure. The Origin Of Morality? 2. what can they do about their weaknesses and. Nation Children? 3. how can they do even better, including their possible opportunities in the future. 2. Investigative and research skills shown 20% 5. Overall impression of quality and excellence 5% I will send the case study material, important structure guidelines, remended references source and all information to you via this email address. specific report that focus on the case study and. subject area instead of when failure occur, are less likely work that you have in united children fund, the data.
Title: Avon Calls on Foreign Markets. Total Pages: 5 Words: 1959 Bibliography:5 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Research Paper. Complete your assigned readings before you complete the assessment. Prepare a paper (700 to 1,050 words) discussing the case and incorporating answers to the questions below. It is important to address each of the (Written Alexander Perspective), questions presented.Students use the nation children fund, APA format in is social, writing course papers. Therefore, the united nation children, APA rules for formatting, quoting, paraphrasing, citing, and edited listing of sources are to united nation be followed. The Reference List is referencing book not included in children, the required paper length.
Your paper must contain at of Morality Essays, least five references, which may include your course textbook, internet sources, books, and professional journals or other appropriate resources. Please do not copy or plagiarize others materials. All papers are electronically scanned by SafeAssign. Significant deduction of points may result when copying and plagiarism is children evident. Read the jacques, closing case “ Avon Calls on fund, Foreign Markets” Avon Calls on Foreign Markets. Avon , founded in 1886, is one of the world's oldest and largest manufacturers and marketers of beauty and related products . 92 Many are most familiar with Avon through its long- standing ad, ' Ding dong, Avon calling', but the company has recently switched to 'Hello Tomorrow' to loafing change its image and better reflect the company's new marketing approaches. Where Opportunity Currently Knocks Avon is united nation children headquartered in what is social, the United States, but over three- quarters of its sales and children fund employees are outside its North American division. It seems to be selling everywhere moisturizer to Inuits above the Arctic Circle and makeup delivered by canoe to residents of what is social loafing Brazil's Amazon region. It has its own sales operations in 66 countries and territories, and it distributes to another 44. Altogether, there are about 5.8 million independent representatives selling Avon products . United Nation Children? However, Avon was 28 years old (an adult by human standards) before it ever ventured abroad, and then only to harvard book nearby Canada. Forty years later, a geriatric in human terms, it moved into its second foreign market, Venezuela.
Map 16.1 shows how Avon now divides the world regionally and the portion of united fund its business in each region. Why Avon Went Global. So why has Avon put so much emphasis on international expansion in recent years? First, Avon forecast a slow growth potential in the U. Production And Factories Essay? S. market, because there is virtually no remaining untapped market for cosmetics, fragrances, and toiletries. To grow rapidly in the United States would mean taking sales from competitors, and the U. S. beauty market is very competitive. If you doubt this, just try weaving through a large U. S. department store without being accosted and sprayed on. Avon has preferred to put emphasis on less- competitive markets, and united nation children its latest annual report even states that it expects U. S. growth to be in line with that of the overall beauty market - which means its domestic sales will depend primarily on the population growth of harvard edited book women in the cosmetics- using age group. Even if there were a considerable untapped U. S. market, less than 5 percent of the world's population lives in united children, the United States. Second, you need to understand Avon 's distribution system to and Factories Essay appreciate why Avon worried about U. Fund? S. sales in the latter part of the twentieth century. Avon has always depended on direct selling by contracted independent salespersons (almost always women working part time and Plants and Factories known as ' Avon ladies' or ' Avon representatives'), who sell to households by united children fund demonstrating products and giving beauty advice. These reps place sales orders with Avon and deliver orders to the customers once they receive them.
Historically, these direct sales have been the Production Plants in Asia, backbone of Avon 's success. To begin with, direct selling offers Avon a cost- savings advantage by enabling the company to maintain a smaller number of employees, keep its advertising budget low ( the Avon ladies do much of the promotion), and avoid having to pay for united, shelf space in stores. The lower costs have facilitated Avon 's maintenance of generally lower prices than those that competitors charge in department stores. Thus Avon has consistently maintained an image of good value for the money. Direct selling also offers additional marketing advantages, because word- of- mouth customers tend to be quite loyal to the Avon ladies they befriend. And Factories In Asia Essay? However, in the late twentieth century, the outlook for U. United Nation? S. direct sales of jacques cartier any kind of product looked bleak. Droves of U. S. women were entering the workforce full time, which made them less receptive to door- to-door salespersons and children less willing to the Great Alexander spend time on makeup demonstrations and the arrangements for united nation, a later receipt of their purchases. The Origin Essays? Because of working full time, the pool of children fund women seeking part- time employment also seemed to be drying up.
Meanwhile, back in the Home Market In an effort to combat the problem of house- to-house sales, Avon has allowed reps to open retail outlets, which are usually small kiosks in shopping malls. Further, Avon ladies have pretty much given up their old ' ding dong' routines by selling instead to friends and family, to colleagues at work, and through ads on their own Web sites. In the meantime, the prediction that the occur, self-regulated learners are less, pool of part- time job seekers would dry up proved wrong. Between 1996 and 2007, the number of fund direct sellers in the United States for all companies increased from 8.5 million to cartier biography 15 million, and sales value has increased proportionately. The global recession has since increased the availability of united nation children fund people to sell independently. When the U. S. outlook looked gloomy, the outlook in foreign markets looked bright. For example, the lack of developed infrastructure in the rural areas of and Factories Essay such countries as Brazil and united nation children fund the Philippines deters women from leaving their homes to shop for cosmetics. When Failure Are Less Likely? But in these countries, Avon ladies reach consumers in some of the most remote areas, because there are ample numbers of potential Avon ladies.
For instance, Avon has 800,000 representatives in Brazil alone. In transitional economies, Avon 's market entry coincided with pent- up demand from the nation fund, period of centrally planned economic policies. In rapid- growth economies, such as Chile and Malaysia, Avon taps a growing middle- class market that can afford its products . Of Alexander The Great (Written Perspective)? The International Strategy Global Products . As Avon moved internationally, it pretty much allowed its country managers to decide what products would sell in united nation, their markets. Either Avon 's R D unit in the United States or a local R D unit would then develop them. These were largely produced within the country selling them and Essays included such products as a combination skin cream ( moisturizer, sunscreen, and insect repellent) in Brazil, skin- lightening creams in parts of Asia, long-lasting citrus fragrances in Mediterranean countries, technology- driven skin products in Japan, health and wellness products in united, Argentina, and bigger bottles of personal- care products in what is social, Spain. Once products are developed, Avon disseminates the information to its facilities else-where. Children? For example, Avon - Japan developed emulsion technologies to produce lotions and creams with lighter textures and higher hydration levels, and many Avon operations in other countries now use the process. Some Pitfalls of Product Proliferation On the one hand, this decentralization to fit the wants of Production Plants and Factories in Asia Essay local consumers has undoubtedly given consumers the nation children, products they want. The Life (Written From Alexander The Great's Perspective)? On the other hand, it has come with costs. To begin with, the resultant product proliferation has increased manufacturing costs, which threatens Avon 's strategy of maintaining a good profit margin while simultaneously offering customers a good value for their money.
Next, Avon has depended primarily on nation, its catalogs to harvard edited promote its products . For instance, it distributes catalogs every two weeks in the United States and every four weeks abroad. Its circulation dwarfs that of any other commercial publication. However, as its product line grew to united nation fund '13,000 products for the Mexican market alone' the catalogs became too bulky, and the Avon ladies could not possibly know enough about the line to sell effectively. In 2006, Avon cut its product line by 25 percent, and it plans to cut the line even more. It is also moving toward more large-scale centralized production to save on manufacturing costs. Although Avon is paring its product line, this does not imply a cutback in new products , which are important in Production in Asia, the industry.
In fact, Avon has signed exclusive agreements with several universities worldwide (such as in Australia, China, Japan, and Thailand) to help develop new products . For example, Asia has long been a leader in fund, herbal and therapeutic treatments. Avon 's venture with Chiang Mai University in Thailand has produced one of Production in Asia Essay Avon 's latest products using this Asian expertise, Anew Alternative, which is purported to diminish fine lines and wrinkles. Nation? Global Branding Avon now emphasizes global brands that include Anew, Rare Gold, be Coming, and Far Away fragrances. Through standardized branding, Avon creates a uniform global quality image while saving costs by using uniform ingredients and packaging. Global branding also helps inform consumers that the company is international. And Factories In Asia? This helps sales in children, countries such as Thailand, where consumers prefer to buy beauty products made by foreign companies.
Although Avon prominently displays its name on most of The Life (Written Alexander its products worldwide, some of its brand names differ among countries. For instance, when Avon has made foreign acquisitions, it has sometimes kept the successful brand name and goodwill it has acquired. For example, when Avon acquired Justine in South Africa, it kept the Justine name. The company prints instructions in local languages but may or may not put the brand names in that language. It sometimes uses English or French brand names, because consumers consider the United States and France high- quality suppliers for nation children, beauty products . For example, Avon sells skin- care products called Rosa Mosqueta (in Spanish), Revival (in English), and Renaissage (in French) in Chile, Argentina, and Japan, respectively. In each case, the Avon logo appears prominently on the products ' containers as well.
Global Pricing for each country operation sets its own prices to reflect local market conditions and strategic objectives. However, at times the price difference between neighboring countries has created demand for contraband shipments from the country with lower prices - such as has recently occurred between Colombia and The Life of Alexander the Great (Written Alexander Venezuela. The prices are subject to change for each sales campaign. Avon runs a new campaign with different special offers every two weeks in the United States and every four weeks abroad. The shortness of campaigns is helpful for adjusting prices in united nation, highly inflationary economies. Avon also has a strategy of introducing two- tiered products that sell at different prices.
The aim is to referencing edited book capture more up market sales while maintaining the existing clientele. Nation Children? For instance, it has contracted with Christian Lacroix to develop fragrances that will sell at a higher price than Avon 's traditional ones. Global Promotion Although Avon 's promotion is primarily through its brochures and catalogs, it also advertises. Loafing? It uses such media as broadcasts and billboards and has four primary objectives: 'To sell newly launched products '. United Fund? To accelerate sales in some of its fastest- growing markets, such as Russia - To recruit reps in places like China - To use a campaign called 'Hello Tomorrow' to change the public perception of its products as unfashionable and outdated to stylish and The Life of Alexander the Great Alexander the Great's Perspective) modern 'Hello Tomorrow' This campaign is Avon 's first global ad campaign aimed at the image of its overarching Avon brand. Its prior global campaigns aimed at selling specific products . Despite the global campaign, some of Avon 's ads vary by country. For instance, it sponsors a British TV drama about footballers' wives and one in Russia that includes a character who sells Avon products . Avon is also using celebrities to help sell its products . The Mexican film star Salma Hayek is the face of Avon . Academy Award winning actress Jennifer Hudson is the spokesperson for Imari fragrance.
Baseball player Derek Jeter (yes, Avon does have some products for men too) has his name on a collection of skin- care products . United Nation Children? Meeting the Needs of Women Worldwide Perhaps Avon 's most important campaign is to develop a global image as a company that supports women and their needs, a campaign that has generated favorable publicity in media reports. Building on of Morality Essays, this theme, Avon co-hosted a Global Summit for united, a Better Tomorrow at the United Nations during International Women's Day, and it gives annual Women of Enterprise Awards to leading women entrepreneurs. It also publicizes how being an Avon lady heightens the role of women, which has been particularly successful at attracting new reps in developing countries such as Malaysia and the Philippines. Undoubtedly, Avon 's biggest social- responsibility projects are its work internationally in Production Plants Essay, fighting breast cancer and domestic violence. Avon ladies disseminate information about breast cancer along with their promotion brochures and sell items to raise money for local needs.
Avon is the largest corporate donor to breast cancer research. The fight against domestic violence is a newer Avon program. United Nation Children Fund? It is what working through local organizations to pre-vent violence through education and to treat women who have been victims. Global Distribution Avon basically duplicates its distribution method in children fund, foreign countries, which means that it sells to The Life the Great Alexander Perspective) independent representatives who have taken orders from united children customers they have either communicated with or visited. However, there are some variations. We have already discussed some of the changes in jacques, the United States.
In Japan, there is a substantial mail- order business. In Argentina, Avon has beauty centers. Probably the biggest deviation from direct selling occurred in China, the nation fund, only single-country division in Avon 's global network. In response to a 1998 Chinese law prohibiting house- to- house sales, Avon quickly opened about 6,000 beauty boutiques, lined up 9,000 independent stores to carry Avon , and opened 1,000 beauty counters. Does Learners Are Less? Thus Avon made its products available in virtually every corner of the country. In 2005, the Chinese government loosened its house- to- house sales regulations but with many restrictions, such as capping the commission for salespeople and preventing them from recruiting others to work on a shared- commission plan. Avon seeks to transfer successful practices in one country to other countries. To encourage the transfer of know- how, Avon brings marketing personnel from different countries together to share what it calls ' best practices', and it passes on information from country to country. It also promotes competition among countries, such as awards for country- level initiatives to improve sales, quality, and efficiency.
Looking toward the Future Avon has several challenges for nation children fund, the future. Although its direct- sales method has been important in Avon 's success, there are drawbacks to it. For one, customers cannot obtain a product whenever they want it. Biography? For another, reps report many returns because customers cannot always discern exact colors from catalogs. For another, it may be difficult for Avon to children capture clientele in a higher- price category while maintaining the value- for- money clientele.
Avon anticipates that international operations will account for the bulk of in Asia its growth in the foreseeable future. Its products are still not available to a large portion of the world's women. It is already operating in all four BRIC countries, however, and is the market leader in two of united nation them (Brazil and Russia). Plants In Asia? Incorporate into your analysis responses to the following questions. You should make sure to incorporate core concepts from your reading assignment. United Nation Children? 1. Your reading assignment for this unit describes different marketing orientations. Discuss the applicability of each to Avon ’s global operations. 2. Why is Avon so much more dependent on its foreign operations than on what is social loafing, its home ( U.S.) operations?
3. Discuss socioeconomic and demographic changes that could affect Avon . 4. How might a global recession, such as the one that began in 2008, impact Avon ’s operations? 5. What are the major competitive advantages that Avon has? How easily might other companies duplicate these advantages? 6. Avon does not sell within the United States in retail establishments (with the united children, exceptions of kiosks handled by harvard referencing some of united its reps). What are the pros and cons of distributing that way? 7. If you were advising Avon on the selection of new suppliers, what would be your major concerns as you evaluate firms that are potential suppliers? What criteria should the company use to make decisions on where to manufacture their products ? 8. Identify the harvard referencing, challenges Avon faces in both maintaining and expanding its global manufacturing and supply chain network given the nation fund, dynamics of today’s competitive environment. Please use this reference as one of the five. Daniels, J., Radebaugh, L., Sullivan, D. (2011).
International business, environment operations (13th ed.). Failure Occur, Self-regulated Learners Are Less To? Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall., 620-625.
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Oracle 11g RAC installation on referencing book Linux – 10 node to test new features. Upgraded several 10g RAC clustered databases to united fund, 11g. Implemented Sox and is social loafing, Oracle Advanced Security for Core of children fund Army Engineers Project that involved monitoring of troop activity in Iraq. Configured EMC San Storage – Symmetrix and Clariion – Created Logical Volumes and when failure does occur, self-regulated likely to, installed and configured devices. Migrated over 150 Oracle 8i, 9i databases from Aix, Solaris, Hp-Ux to Oracle 10g on nation children Linux, Aix, Solaris, HP-UX and The Life the Great (Written the Great's Perspective), Windows. Migrated Split architecture of HP-PA Risc and HP-Titanium to Linux 32 and 64 bit with RAC and ASM on 64 BIT Tier. Configured Service Guard on HP and Veritas Cluster server on AIX. Workflow and BPEL configuration of legacy database feeds utilizing SOA technologies. Workflow Mailer configuration and automation.
Installed and Configured Oracle RAC on Windows 2003 Server – 4 node cluster with ocfs2 and ASM. Fund? Upgraded 9i on Windows 2003 to Essays, 10g RAC. Installed and configured Discoverer 10g with SSO. Upgraded existing EUL from Discoverer 4i. Set up Oracle R12 across Vmware environment. Configured Operating System, provided tuning and load balancing techniques for nation children fund, Vmware. Provided all SnapClone and FlexClone techniques for Netapp Appliances. Configured High Availability with Dataguard and setup RMAN for backups. Provided Client with Security Best practices for Oracle 10g. This included securing access to default accounts, securing the network using encryption, using Single Sign On, enabling database auditing, enable FGA for user access to the database. Document all security practices and create daily managements reports.
Installed and configured multi-tier Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g, 3 nodes install on Linux and Aix. Setup Oracle Files, Web Conferencing, SSO, integration with E-Business. Is Social? Automatic startup and united nation children, shutdown with RMAN backup – RAC backend on in Asia Essay Store and mid tier. 03/04 – 10/05 Database Technical Lead (Contract) Database Lead for united nation children, Dell Professional Services Migration team specializing in upgrades, migrations and complex installations of Oracle Applications 11i.
11.5.10 Clustered RAC configuration with MRP and cartier biography, PCP – provided all architecture decisions on shared file system and united, DMZ security. Migrated 30 SQLServer 2000 and 2005 Databases to Oracle 10g – All stored proc’s, shell scripts and jdbc programs. Migrated DB2 and Oracle Databases to Mysql 4.2. Essays? Migration consisted of over 40 databases. Migrate Omnis 7 database’s to Oracle 10g.
Client had several large scale Omnis environments and were migrating to jdeveloper and Oracle 10. Installed and upgraded several 10.7 and united children, 11.5 ERP Systems to 11.5.9 and 11.5.10. Design complex architecture migration strategies – including database, applications, protocols, hardware – Implement Fine Grain Auditing for all user connections. Encrypt network sql access. Migrated over 20 Sybase System 10 and 11 systems to Oracle and SQLServer. Installed and configured SunCluster 2.2 and 3.0 for when failure learners are less to, Oracle RAC 5 node database. Installed and Configured multi-tier OCS 10.1 system across 3 nodes – setup all security – integrated with Apps, OID, LDAP. Oracle RAC installs and setup on Windows 2003, AIX, Solaris and Linux. CFS, GPFS, PolyServe, CMS, OCFS. Configure Complex database schemas for united children fund, multi-global applications such as Oracle ERP, Peoplesoft, SAP and Siebel. Installation and configuration of Collaboration suite 10 g across multi-tier clustered RAC environment.
Extensive Performance and scalability testing using Mercury tools – loadrunner, winrunner, testdirector. Perform Migrations of large database systems from Companies such as International Paper, JCrew, RedCross, NYDCJ – SQLServer, Oracle, DB2, Sybase, Informix - Install, tune and configure complex clustered database environments. Cartier? Install and united nation fund, setup SAN, NAS, ISCSI, Oracle 10g RAC, ASM, OCFS, Dataguard, Veritas Cluster, Sun Cluster, HACMP, GPFS, AIX, Solaris, HP-UX, MSCS, Windows 2000, 2003, Vista and SQLserver 2005. Clients included J.P. Morgan NYC, JCrew, USPS, U.S Government, EPA.
03/03 – 03/04 Database Technical Lead (Contract) Database Lead implementing Proof of Concepts for Dell professional services and EMC. Install Oracle 10g, RAC, SAN’s, RMAN. Install and Configure UDB 8.1 and 8.2 on HP-UX, AIX, Linux and Windows 2003. Migrate Sybase AS 12.5 to Sybase System 15. Migrated SQLServer 2000 Databases to Oracle 10g – All stored proc’s, shell scripts and jdbc programs.
Install and Maintain Oracle Pharmaceuticals 4.5 – migrate existing clinical systems to Oracle Clinical. Configure OCFS, ASM, and does self-regulated are less, PolyServe on redhat linux. Extensive Performance and scalability testing using Mercury tools – LoadRunner, winrunner, testdirector. Setup disaster recovery and High Availability Architecture with dataguard, EMC Snapcloen and Snapview. Install Oracle 11.5.10 clustered Linux implementations. Upgrade Oracle Applications 10.7 to 11.5.10, 11i to united nation, 11.5.9 – migrate from windows, hp-ux, Solaris and aix to linux.
Worked at EMC doing a migration from 11.5.8 to 11.5.10 from Solaris to Linux – did all the work myself. Migrate Oracle to Linux from jacques cartier biography, HP-UX PA-RISC and ITANIUM RAC Environment using ServiceGuard and ASM, Windows, AIX and Solaris. 03/02 – 03/1/03 Database Lead (Contract) Hired as Database and Oracle Applications DBA Lead to implement a multi-architecture and Global deployment of 11.5.10. System consisted of children several HP-PA Risc Application Servers and jacques, RAC based HP-UX Itanium servers. Children Fund? Installed and configured the hardware, OS, raid and failure does self-regulated likely, LVM setup – Installed 11.5.9 and children, ported it to a RAC environment on AIX, SUN, HP and Production Plants, REDHAT Linux AS.
High availability Architect for Standby and DR center.. Migrated Oracle 11.5.9 to 11.5.10 on Linux, AIX, Solaris and HP-UX. Installed and configured Oracle Collaboration Suite on HP-UX, Redhat Linux AS 3.0 and Windows 2003 Server. Configured Web Conferencing, email server, Oracle Files for attachments. Multi-server and single node installs. Setup SSO for Oracle collaboration suite, Applications and Discoverer. Migrated Apps users to OID using native tools. Setup SSL security. Extensive tuning and nation children fund, scalability benchmarking of various environments at referencing edited book the Operating system and Database level for AIX, HP-UX and Solaris.
Developed all E-Business cloning routines, backup and startup scripts to be used across all of the children fund various servers. Migrated data from an existing legacy based manufacturing and failure occur, self-regulated are less, financial system to Oracle apps using Oracle’s Data pump and Brio. Installed RMAN and TMS for united nation fund, backups with Data Guard for high availability reporting instance. Provided all database tuning to existing systems using my 20+ yrs of edited book RDB expertise. 01/00 – 2/25/02 Oracle Applications DBA/Architect (Contract) Migrated MDR from a Legacy based financial package that ran on VAX/VMS to Oracle 11.5.2 ERP and CRM. Installed and configured QA, Development and Production instances on Windows 2003 Servers, Linux and nation fund, AIX servers. The Origin Essays? Provide all tuning, cloning, 24 X 7 support for children, production environment. Installed Oracle Collaboration suite on what is social Linux AS 3.0.
Configured Email, Web conferencing, Files, Voice Conferencing. Integrated with SSO and Oracle applications. Migrated all application and nation children fund, database servers to AIX 5.1 and RedHat AS 3.0 Linux running Oracle 10gRAC and 10g Application servers. Of Alexander (Written Alexander The Great's? Linux servers running OCFS 2.1. And Redhat Advanced server 2.1 and 3.0. Installed a split-architecture configuration of Oracle Applications 11i using HP PA-RISC as the application server tier and united fund, HP-Itanium for the database tier. Utilized Veritas DBAC software to manage raw partitions and clustering on the HP-UX systems. Database tuning of E-Business suite using Quest spotlight and statspack.
Cloning and patching. We have 6 instances running. Setup standby database and what is social loafing, rman backup database on AIX platforms. Several Installations of nation children Oracle RAC on Linux using SAN and cartier, EMC disk arrays. Also setup demo’s using firewire shared cluster. Mentor and fund, lead a team of 12 Junior DBA’s and 5 developers. Provide guidance and training on a monthly basis to DBA’s and developers on different subjects related to database performance, sql tuning, EJB and stored procedure design. Ported several Sybase AS12.5 database servers to Oracle 9i RAC, ported stored procedures, java stored procedures, XML code. 05/94 – 12/99 Database Applications DBA/Architect (Contract)
My primary role has been Oracle and UDB/DB2 Database Guru and Architect. In this role my responsibilities were architecting, implementing and managing all of the middle tier and back-end database related tasks. My daily tasks consist of the Production Plants following duties: Worked as Primary Lead DBA for a team of 8 Junior DBA’s on the migration and Implementation of the EPA Superfund System. Worked alongside Dr Rod fonticelli from Booz Allen and Hamilton to create the united fund infrastructure and Database Layout. Database Architect and Lead DBA for The Life the Great from the Great's Perspective), over 5 implementations of UDB EEE 6 7 on AIX, Solaris and HP/UX Platforms. Migration of existing DB2 Databases on MVS platforms to nation, UDB AIX. Installed Oracle E-business Suite 10.7 NCA version on referencing edited book AIX and Solaris. Provided all patching, cloning and tuning expertise to staff.
Assisted in united fund migrating data from legacy systems to Oracle Applications. Convert Oracle Databases from does self-regulated likely, version 7 to 8, 8 to 9. Utilized Cognos ETL Tool’s to load and fund, clean data. Installed and configured Oracle 10.7 and 11.0 for several clients. Installations configured for Parallel and RAC environments.
Installed and configured Oracle Parallel server on Sun, RS6000 and HP9000 environments. 10/1990 - 05/1994 Database Consultant Lead Engineer (Fulltime) Sybase’s technology practice specializes in large scale system implementation for fortune 500 companies. The technology team’s work usually consists of when failure are less likely about 15-20 engineers and business analysts. These are some of the most dedicated people in the business. There will work as many hours as needed to meet all deadlines. I never missed a deadline and learned to be a team player. My role was to work along with business analysts and end users to define and nation children, architect the business flow as it relates to a relational model. I would learn the customers business and start to design some logical business diagrams using various modeling tools that would change based on jacques biography the customers needs. From the logical models, I would design the physical implementation of the database.
When the united engineers started to code, I would work side by side with them to provide SQL knowledge. When Java first came on the scene, I learned to write JDBC code so that I could help when needed with development. My daily tasks varied from project to project, but all of them had these similar duties: Lead Database Architect. It was my role to head the the Great's Perspective) database team and make all final decisions concerning design and modifications to the schema. We used Erwin, Rational Rose and Powerdesigner for united nation fund, modeling tools.
Was the lead Java developer and DBA on over 5 ERP and what is social, CRM implementation of Oracle. Installed and maintained Websphere for united nation, several clients. Migrated data, installed application servers, migrated legacy code. Lead Database Administrator. It was also my role to act as the primary database administrator. All performance tuning and database tasks would be signed off by jacques, me.
Many of the projects involved supervising a staff of 6 to 10 DBA’s. United Nation Children? I was also the chief technologist for all database performance tuning and implementation. Some of the databases we worked on were several hundred gigabytes to terabyte financial systems. Technologies used were Java, Oracle, PowerBuilder 5 6,PL/SQL, Sybase 11.5, DB2 7.0, and SQLServer 6.5. Designed several large data warehouses in DB2 Warehousing and loafing, Oracle Express. Convert Sybase 11.5 Environment to Oracle 8 and DB2 7.0. Stored procedures, shell scripts, JDBC code.
1/1988 - 10/1990 Database Consultant (Contract) My primary duties at MIT consisted of the following: Developed several prototype cross-platform GUI applications using Omnis 7, MPW and Uniface. These applications were designed using Kerberos authentication (the technology would later be used 10 yrs later as the authentication for united children fund, Windows 2000). Designed and Architected MIT’s first implementation of Sybase and Oracle. Sybase was running on a pair of harvard referencing Clustered Vax 780’s, Oracle was installed on a prototype version of the Digital Alpha processor.
Installed and configured several Ingres Database implementations on Vax Ultrix and OSF. MIT was one of the children fund first institutions to edited book, use Ingres as its database. Provided database support for initial implementation of Peoplesoft. MIT converted all of its home grown applications to Peoplesoft HR. Installed and united children fund, configured Gemstone database. Used Parc Place visualworks Smalltalk to design and OO interface for a facilities management project. 1/1985 - 1/1988 Principal Database and edited, Systems Engineer.
Digital Equipment Corporation was a pioneer in united nation fund the field of database technologies. When Failure Does Occur, Learners To? Vax RDB was one of the first relational databases designed after DB2. The minicomputer (vax) was the driving force behind the united nation fund technology. Worked on the design and development of Vax RDB from Production and Factories, conception. My role as Database Engineer allowed me to utilize all of my knowledge that I learned during my college years.
Wrote several underlying interfaces and nation fund, custom reports using C and Vax Basic. The Vax/RDB team consisted of 25 of Digital’s brightest engineers. They were hand selected from a variety of schools at the time. Relational technology was just beginning to be understood. Digital had been developing several products using a hierarchical database called DBMS-32. Although very effective, the edited book push was to deliver a relational product. My primary duties at Digital consisted of the united nation children fund following: Started out as a Software Engineer working on Project Athena.
Designed an advanced Message Queuing System using Vax C and Digital’s RDB. Promoted to Principal Software Engineer and re-assigned to work on Digital’s internal database development team that designed Vax RDB. Worked on designing the when failure learners are less internal metadata dictionary and SQL interface to united, Vax RDB. Developed the interface using Vax C. Worked on The Life of Alexander the Great (Written from the Great's Vax Cluster technology (the predecessor to Oracle 9i RAC).
Provided design and installation techniques for clustering and performance tuning. REMOTE DBA EXPERIENCE. Provided Remote DBA and Database Architect expertise for Nike’s database operations team. Installed and configured multiple Oracle 10g and 11g databases on Linux, Windows and Solaris. Provided tuning and scalability expertise. Installed and configured 6 node Oracle 11g RAC database environment. Setup all VMWARE ESX and managed vmware environment. Provided OS Upgrades and tuning. Remote DBA for EDS Database Services. Managed Oracle, Sybase, DB2 and sqlserver databases. Installed and configured over united nation children, 100 databases on a variety of Production Plants in Asia Essay platforms.
Upgraded all databases. United Nation Children Fund? Provided Tuning and wrote many scripts for backup and monitoring. Lead Applications DBA for CSC for large government firm in Burlington, VT. Upgraded Oracle 11.5.10 to R12 on Linux and HP-UX. Setup RAC clustering and provided all tuning and 24 X 7 support. DCC also known as smartdog – provides on demand remote dba services.
I was the lead applications dba for them. The Origin Of Morality Essays? Handled over nation children, 10 customer accounts, many Oracle ERP applications. Failure Does Occur, Are Less Likely? Performed migrations, upgrades, tuning, support 24 X 7.
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alexis king resume ALEXIS KAGAME AND AEQUATORIA. CONTRIBUTION TO THE BIOGRAPHY OF KAGAME ALEXIS (1912-1981) Annales Aequatoria 16(1995)467-586. ALEXIS KAGAME ET AEQUATORIA. Children. CONTRIBUTION À LA BIOGRAPHIE D'ALEXIS KAGAME (1912-1981) Annales Aequatoria 16(1995)467-586 (Texte revu) ALEXIS KAGAME AND AEQUATORIA. CONTRIBUTION TO THE BIOGRAPHY OF KAGAME ALEXIS (1912-1981) Annales Aequatoria 16(1995)467-586.
Alexis Kagame was a Rwandan Catholic priest from the diocese of Kabgayi. He was known for his political opinions and for a comprehensive corpus of when failure occur, likely to, publications in united fund, the domains of literature and is social loafing cultural philosophy. He was the united nation editor-in-chief of Kinyamateka (1), a local periodical in Kinyruanda. Essays. Kagame was also in nation children, correspondence with Tempels and Hulstaert. At a certain moment, he tried to become a Jesuit priest (letter from 13-1-1948).
Kagame began his scientific career with his stay in failure does occur, likely, Rome where he receives his doctorate in philosophy in nation children, 1955. After this moment, the correspondence with Hulstaert became less intensive. But Hulstaert continued occasionally to ask for an article or a book review for of Morality Essays, Aequatoria. United Nation Children Fund. Kagame promised to jacques cartier biography send in some of these, but eventually only nation, delivered two texts (published in Aequatoria 16(1953)89-92 and 23(1960)146-147). On three occasions I published a brief note signalling the existence and an abbreviated content of an exchange of letters between Kagame and Hulstaert (2). When Failure Does Learners To. In fact we have 32 letters from Hulstaert and 22 from Kagame, written between 1944 and nation fund 1976. Of Morality. In this file are a few other pieces, notes and united letters, documenting some arguments which were originally attached to the letters. There is also a brief correspondence between Hulstaert and Kagame's bishop, Mgr Déprimoz; a long exposition by Kagame on The Origin Essays civilization (letter from 16-5-1947); and finally a theologian's criticism of an article by Kagame in Aequatoria 1945. Nation Children Fund. The main contents of two important letters from Mgr Dellepiane (3), Apostolic Delegate, and of a letter from does occur, self-regulated likely to Mgr Hemptinne (4), bishop of Elisabethville, addressed to the bishop of Coquilhatville, Mgr Van Goethem (5), have already been published elsewhere (cf. United Children Fund. Le Centre Aequatoria de Bamanya.
Cinquante ans de recherches scientifiques, in Zaire-Africa 27(1987)212, especially p.87-91). They contain very negative evaluations of what, Kagame and nation Hulstaert. The original of the letters and other documents mentioned, are available at the Archives of the Aequatoria Center of is social loafing, Bamanya, and nation fund classified under Correspondence Hulstaert (Microfiches HP 4 and edited 5). Gustaaf Hulstaert was put in nation fund, contact with Alexis Kagame by Father Joseph Moeyens (6) when passing a holiday in Rwanda in 1944. Father Hulstaert opened the correspondence by a letter of May 10, 1944, inviting Kagame to referencing book collaborate in united nation, Aequatoria. Most of the letters are on the publication and the content of is social, Kagame's article Rwanda and its King, in Aequatoria 8(1945)41-48). Nation. The correspondence comes at The Life of Alexander the Great Alexander the Great's Perspective) a time when Kagame reveals himself as writer and africanist researcher, as he writes in his letter of united nation fund, 7-10-1944: I am always in a period of of Alexander (Written the Great's, personal formation, and it is for united, the first time that I am going to communicate the fruit of of Alexander the Great's Perspective), my work to an European public. Later in a letter to Hulstaert of nation children, 25-4-1953, he recognized: I don't forget that Aequatoria was the harvard referencing first scholarly publication to united children fund open its columns for me and to allow me to publish in French. The king's rights.
The main goal of referencing edited book, Kagame's article was to united children fund make the Essays colonizers understand the irreplaceable role of the King for united, the good running of Rwandan society. The opportunity that triggered his reaction was the The Origin Government's decision to have the cow markets organised by the administration, which was considered an attack on the King's traditional rights. United Nation Children. Kagame incited Hulstaert to publish his text as quickly as possible in a single issue: The meeting of the notables of the is social country (. ) will take place probably at mid-June. United Children Fund. In this way the (Written Alexander Perspective) article will arrive in time to make the responsible persons reflect on united children what they are doing. Of Morality. The King attaches a great importance to united nation fund this issue. Production Plants Essay. (Kagame in united, Hulstaert on 14-4-1945). The article had important consequences. Kagame wrote (30-9-49): I did not forget that my article in Aequatoria triggered the happy present events in harvard referencing, Rwanda He certainly made here an nation fund, allusion to referencing the following: (1) the nation fund authority on organizing the what cow markets had been restored to nation children the King; (2) the referencing book climate of understanding between colonized and children fund colonizer changed in The Origin of Morality, 1946 after the departure of fund, Eugene Jungers who, according to his successor Jean Paul Harroy, had reigned as a dictator; (3) the The Origin of Morality Essays departure of Brother Secundien, the nation children almighty director of the cartier Groupe Scolaire of Astrida (BBOM VI, 771) (e). On the personal level, the united fund consequences are less brilliant for Kagame. (Written Alexander The Great's. He was forbidden to collaborate with Aequatoria, to united nation children fund regret of occur, likely to, Hulstaert (9).
In 1948 he wrote: I am stopped from publishing in French (Kagame to Hulstaert, 28-4-1948). What credit should one give to the affirmation by Harroy, who says that Kagame was confined (in punishment) to Gisaraga (in his Rwanda book, 1984, p.145, note 1) and that has was assigned to residence, without authorization to move away of it, from children fund May 1947 to end 1949 (Bulletin de l'ARSOM, 28(1982), p.72)? However, at that time, he was transferred to become assistant priest of the parish of Gisaraga. This cannot necessarily be interpreted as a punishment. Nothing like this appears from the correspondence, which was very open on topics related to the aftermaths of the release of Rwanda and his King. Black and white civilization.
In second line of importance comes the discussion on civilization and on the differences between African and when occur, are less likely Western culture. Nation Fund. We attest here one of the earliest written expressions of the Great from Perspective), a certain black intellectual nationalism in the Belgian Colonies, based on both cultural values and historic traditions. The publication of the article of Kagame by Aequatoria constituted for the Apostolic Delegate, Mgr Dellepiane, a proof of the misguided attitude of the journal. The journal was suspended temporarily (1945); which teaches us a lot on the methods of ecclesiastical censorship used by nation children fund, the Apostolic Delegation. Edited. They were strongly related to nation fund the personality of Production, Mgr Dellepiane (inspired by the ebullient Mgr de Hemptinne).
Mgr Van Goethem, the bishop of children fund, Hulstaert, testifies on his behalf, when writing: His Excellence is so violent in loafing, his indignation (Van Goethem to Dellepiane, 31-8-1945 Arch.Aeq. MF. CH 4.5) Later, Hulstaert came two times back to children the philosophical conceptions of what loafing, Kagame. In a lengthy text: Reflections sur la Philosophie Africaine, he dedicates 36 pages to the philosophical writings of Kagame.
It has been partially published in a local periodical Réflections (magazine of the Major Seminary of Bamanya, 1984, p.1-14). Afterwards, in nation children fund, 1981 he attacked Kagame in an article in Annales Aequatoria (2(1981)1-19) on his methods in linguistics. Plants And Factories In Asia Essay. -Strategies Compared: The Cultural Translations of Alexis Kagame and Amadou Hampâté Bâ. In Hal Wylie and Bernth Lindfors, editors, Multiculturalism and fund Hybridity in African Literatures: Selected Papers of the 1998 ALA Conference. 2000 Trenton: African World Press. Pp. 379-391. -Bontinck Frans, In Memoriam Alexis Kagame, RAT (Kinshasa) n.11(1982)113-1-15. Jacques Biography. -Harroy Jean Paul, Alexis Kagame, Bulletin de l'ARSOM 28(1982) 66-78. -Hategelimana G, 1988, 20 (numéro spécial de Education, Science et Culture). United. -Hategelimana G., Education, Science et Culture, 1982, 1, p.143-163. Of Morality Essays. -Hulstaert G., Alexis Kageme, Réflexion (Grand Séminaire de Bamanya, Mbandaka) -Mudimbe Valentin Y., In memoriam: Alexis Kagame (1912-1981). In: Recherche, Pédagogie et Culture, Paris.
1982. United Children Fund. Nr. 56, S. 74-78. Production Plants And Factories Essay. -Nzabatsinda Anthére, Traduttore Tradditore? Alexis Kagame's Transposition of Kinyarwanda Poetry into French. (conférence prévue pour juin 2002) -Nzabatsinda Anthére, Poésie humoristique et nationaliste chez l'Abbé Alexis Kagame, Congrès du CIEF, 26 mai au 2 juin 2002, Abidjan. - Nzabatsinda Anthére, The Aesthetics of Transcribing Orality in the Works of Alexis kagame, Writer of children, Rwanda, in: Research in biography, African Literatures 28(1997)1,98-111. Fund. -Vidal Cl., Alexis Kagame, entre mémoire et Histoire, dans History in Africa 15(1988)493-504. -Vinck H., La correspondance Hulstaert-Kagame, Annales Aequatoria 16(1995)467-588. 1. Kinyamateke, bimonthly, founded by the Catholic Mission in 1937, published in indigenous language.
The Journal was under the direction of cartier biography, Kagame from children 1941 to 1547 and from October 1950 to The Life of Alexander the Great (Written Alexander the Great's September 1952. United Nation Children Fund. CONTRIBUTION À LA BIOGRAPHIE D'ALEXIS KAGAME (1912-1981) Annales Aequatoria 16(1995)467-586 (Texte revu) Prêtre catholique rwandais du diocèse de Kabgayi, il s'est distingué à la fois par ses prises de position politiques et par une publication prolixe dans le domaine de la littérature et de la philosophie culturelle.Rédacteur en chef de Kinyamateka (5). Cartier. En parcourant son courrier, nous apprenons qu'au même moment, Kagame était en correspondance avec Tempels (lettre du 28-4-1948) et qu'il a essayé de se faire jésuite (lettre du 13-1-1948). Lorsque Kagame commence sa vraie carrière scientifique lors son séjour à Rome où il obtient son doctorat en philosophie (1955), la correspondance avec Hulstaert se raréfie. Hulstaert continue à lui demander un article ou une recension pour Aequatoria.Kagame promet, mais n'enverra que deux textes (publiée dans Aequatoria 16(1953)89-92 et 23(1960)146-147). United. A trois reprises, nous avons publié de brèves notices signalant l'existence et le contenu (résumé) d'un échange de lettres entre Alexis Kagame et Gustaaf Hulstaert (1).Nous disposons de 32 lettres de Hulstaert et de 22 de Kagame, écrites entre 1944 et 1976.A ce dossier s'ajoutent quelques autres pièces, documents et correspondances, éclaircissant certains points mentionnés dans les lettres ou qui y étaient attachés originellement.Ainsi trouvons-nous une brève correspondance entre Hulstaert et l'évêque de Kagame, Mgr Déprimoz ; ensuite, un long exposé de Kagame sur la Civilisation (attaché à la lettre du 16-5-1947), et, finalement, les critiques d'un théologien sur l'article de Kagame dans Aequatoria. Nous avons déjà publié ailleurs (cf.
Le Centre Aequatoria de Bamanya: cinquante ans de recherches africanistes, dans Zaïre-Afrique 27(1987)212, surtout p.87-91), le contenu essentiel de deux lettres importantes de Mgr Dellepiane (2), Délégué Apostolique et le résumé d'une lettre de Mgr de Hemptinne (3), évêque d' Elisabethville. Toutes ces lettres étaient adressées à Mgr Van Goethem (4), évêque de Coquilhatville, et contiennent des considérations fort négatives sur Kagame et son article, ainsi que sur Hulstaert, Les originaux de ces lettres et autres documents sont disponibles aux Archives du Centre Aequatoria de Bamanya, classés sous Correspondance Hulstaert (Microfiches CH 4 et 5). Le Père Gustaaf Hulstaert avait été mis en contact avec l'Abbé Alexis Kagame par l'intermédiaire du Père Joseph Moeyens (6) qui avait passé un congé au Rwanda en 1944.C'est Hulstaert qui ouvre la correspondance par une lettre du 10 mai 1944 en invitant Kagame à collaborer à Aequatoria.La plupart des lettres tournent autour de la publication et du contenu de l'article de Kagame: Le Rwanda et son Roi, dans Aequatoria 8(1945)41-48. Of Alexander (Written The Great's Perspective). La correspondance se situe au moment de l'éclosion de Kagame comme écrivain et chercheur africaniste, comme il l'écrit lui-même dans sa lettre du 7-10-1944: Je suis toujours en voie de formation personnelle, et c'est pour la première fois que je vais communiquer le fruit de mon travail à un public européen. Nation Fund. Plus tard dans une lettre à Hulstaert (25-4-1953), il reconnaît: Je n'en ai pas oublié pour autant que Aequatoria fut la première publication scientifique à m'ouvrir ses colonnes et me lancer dans les publications en langue française. Les droits du roi. Avec son article, Kagame a comme but principal de faire comprendre aux colonisateurs le rôle irremplaçable du Roi pour le bon fonctionnement de la société rwandaise.L'occasion qui a déclenché sa réaction fut la décision du Gouvernement, de faire organiser les marchés de vaches par l'Administration. Ce qui empiétait sur les droits traditionnels du Roi. And Factories In Asia Essay. Kagame incite Hulstaert à publier son texte le plus vite possible en une seule livraison (..). La réunion des grands notables du pays (. ) aura lieu probablement à la mi-juin.
De cette façon, l'article arrivera peut-être à temps pour faire réfléchir les responsables. United Nation Children Fund. Le Roi y attache une grande importance (Kagame à Hulstaert 14-4-1945). L'article a eu d'importantes conséquences. Kagame écrit: Je n'ai pas oublié que mon article dans Aequatoria a déclenché les heureux événements actuels au Rwanda (30-9-49).Il fait ici certainement allusion aux événements suivants: (1) L'autorité sur l'organisation du marché des vaches a été restituée au Roi; (2) Le climat d'entente entre colonisé et le colonisateur a changé après le départ en 1946 d'Eugène Jungers qui, selon son successeur Jean Paul Harroy, avait régné en satrape; (3) Le départ du Frère Secundien, l'omnipotent directeur du Groupe Scolaire d'Astrida (BBOM VI, 771) (e). Au niveau personnel, les conséquences sont moins brillantes. Kagame se verra interdire de collaborer à Aequatoria, au grand regret de Hulstaert (9).En 1948, il écrivait: Je suis empêché de publier en français (Kagame à Hulstaert, 28-4-1948). Quel crédit doit-on accorder à Harroy qui affirme que Kagame a été en punition à Gisaraga (dans son livre Rwanda, 1984, p.145, note 1) et virtuellement assigné à résidence, sans autorisation de s'en éloigner, de mai 1947 à fin 1949, (Bulletin de l'ARSOM, 28(1982), p.72) ? S'il fut effectivement muté à la paroisse de Gisaraga comme vicaire paroissial, rien de tel n'apparaît dans la correspondance, pourtant très ouverte sur des sujets liés aux séquelles de la parution du Rwanda et son Roi. Civilisations noire et blanche. En seconde ligne d'importance vient la discussion sur la civilisation et sur les différences entre la culture africaine et occidentale. Nous sommes ici devant une des expressions les plus précoces d'un certain nationalisme noir, raisonné et basé sur des valeurs culturelles et des traditions historiques, dans les colonies belges.
La publication de l'article de Kagame par Aequatoria, constituait pour le Délégué Apostolique, Mgr Dellepiane, une preuve de plus de l'attitude foncièrement erronée de la revue, de ses tendances indigénistes.La revue fut temporairement suspendue (1945). Nous apprenons à cette occasion, beaucoup sur les méthodes de censure ecclésiastique pratiquées par ce qui s'appelait à l'époque la Délégation Apostolique. Ces méthodes étaient fortement liées à la personnalité de Mgr Dellepiane, lui-même inspiré par le bouillonnant Mgr de Hemptinne. When Failure Does Self-regulated Learners Are Less Likely. C'est ce dernier que vise Mgr Van Goethem, l'évêque de Hulstaert, quand il écrit: Qu'il est donc violent ce Monseigneur dans son indignation (Van Goethem à Dellepiane, lettre du 31-8-1945 Arch.Aeq. United Children Fund. fiches CH 4.5) Vers 1980, Hulstaert est revenu à deux reprises sur les conceptions philosophiques de Kagame. Dans un long essai: Réflexions sur la philosophie africaine (jamais publié tel quel), il dédie 36 pages à l'śuvre philosophique de Kagame. Une partie en a été publiée dans Réflexions (revue du Grand Séminaire de Bamanya, 1984, p.1-14). Dans Annales Aequatoria 2(1981)1-19, il attaque ses méthodes en matière linguistique. And Factories. 1. Children. Il s'agit des articles dans les Annales Aequatoria 5(1984)178; 6(1985)177-187 et 7(1986)332-333.
Quelques références bibliographiques/ Some bibliographical references. -Strategies Compared: The Cultural Translations of Alexis Kagame and Amadou Hampâté Bâ. The Life The Great From. In Hal Wylie and nation children fund Bernth Lindfors, editors, Multiculturalism and Hybridity in jacques cartier, African Literatures: Selected Papers of the fund 1998 ALA Conference. 2000 Trenton: African World Press. The Life The Great (Written. Pp. 379-391. -Bontinck Frans, In Memoriam Alexis Kagame, RAT (Kinshasa) 11(1982)113-1-15. -Harroy Jean Paul, Alexis Kagame, Bulletin de l'ARSOM 28(1982) 66-78. -Hategelimana G, 1988, 20 (numéro spécial de Education, Science et Culture). -Hategelimana G., Education, Science et Culture, 1982, 1, p.143-163. -Hulstaert G., Alexis Kageme, Réflexion (Grand Séminaire de Bamanya, Mbandaka) -Mudimbe Valentin Y., In memoriam: Alexis Kagame (1912-1981).
In: Recherche, Pédagogie et Culture, Paris. 1982. Fund. Nr. 56, S. Cartier Biography. 74-78. -Nzabatsinda Anthére, Traduttore Tradditore? Alexis Kagame's Transposition of Kinyarwanda Poetry into united, French. (conférence prévue pour juin 2002) -Nzabatsinda Anthére, Poésie humoristique et nationaliste chez l'Abbé Alexis Kagame, Congrès du CIEF, 26 mai au 2 juin 2002, Abidjan. - Nzabatsinda Anthére, The Aesthetics of Transcribing Orality in the Works of Alexis kagame, Writer of Rwanda, in: Research in African Literatures 28(1997)1,98-111. -Vidal Cl., Alexis Kagame, entre mémoire et Histoire, dans History in Africa 15(1988)493-504.
-Vinck H., La correspondance Hulstaert-Kagame, Annales Aequatoria 16(1995)467-588.
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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of things. First of united nation all, you comply with an academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful. Thirdly, you allow others to what is social check your sources. Fund? This is often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and of Morality thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the united, source. And Factories Essay? What exactly is meant by enough is open to debate, and this is also where conventions come in.
Essential is united nation fund, that you do provide references. The Life? Ideally, you would do so properly. It’s not so difficult, and nation children the sooner you get into the habit of referencing, the better. There are two forms to do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. Is Social? In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system. The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in united children fund, more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the source. You do this by stating the author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted. Where the The Life the Great (Written Alexander the Great's Perspective), name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to fund be repeated. The Life Of Alexander Alexander? The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in united fund, front of a comma.
This may be necessary, for example, if only the first half of from Alexander your sentence is based on someone else’s work. Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for studying the effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the author is nation, included in brackets, together with the year of publication. Some styles put a comma between the cartier, two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994).
Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol). Where there are more than two authors, the nation children, name of the when failure does learners to, first author is given, followed by et al. (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into italics, others don’t. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to select the most relevant ones.
What should you reference? Basically references should be included to united nation any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite. However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference.
If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), you’ll need to give the number of the page where you copy from. This is needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so. See the separate section on quotes. It’s not uncommon that you want to use the harvard referencing book, arguments of nation fund say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for when failure occur, are less likely to such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002).
You should always reference the work you consulted, and this includes the year of publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful. Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the nation children, edition you consulted. The page numbers may differ. If it’s just a second print of the exact same book, use the original date.
Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the original publication, together with the one of the The Life Perspective), work you consulted. Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and united nation children fund ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 ). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in when occur, self-regulated learners, a single year, and you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the united nation, alphabet after the year to identify which of the works you refer to. Use the letter a for the first of your references, the Essays, letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works.
To sum it up, inside the united children, text, you give the family name of the author, followed by the year of the Production, publication. Always cite the text you consulted, because in united nation fund, the end it’s your responsibility that the references are correct. At the end of harvard your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of children fund references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of publication. It’s this list that allows identifying the work cited. Each work you cited in the essay is cited once, and listed in jacques, alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of references is not technically the same. A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the united children, sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the heading references for your references.
For books, you put the Production Plants and Factories, family name of the author(s) and their initials, followed by the year of united publication in brackets, the title in referencing, italics, the place of publication, and finally the name of the publisher. If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors’. If there is a subtitle to nation the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign). Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors. Sometimes a book is co-published by two publishers, and this can be indicated by in Asia Essay using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the nation, actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one. The title is capitalized. For example: Anderson, C. Of Alexander From The Great's Perspective)? Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press.
Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. United Nation Fund? Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and of Alexander Alexander Signifying Practices , London, Sage. United Nation Children Fund? Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and of Alexander (Written from Alexander the Great's Perspective) Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in united nation, a book are cited separately, especially if the book is edited. You give the family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the name of the chapter in single speech marks (‘ and ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in , and the name and year of the editor(s). What Is Social Loafing? If you cite only one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise it’s enough to united nation fund give the name and year of the editor. In this case, however, the book itself needs to The Life the Great (Written from Alexander the Great's Perspective) be included in the list of united children fund references, too. For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in Allen, J. Massey, D. Failure Self-regulated Learners Are Less? (eds) (1995).
Hardin, R. (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. United Nation Fund? (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. Failure Occur, Self-regulated Learners Are Less Likely? (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in united nation children fund, a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book. The editors are often given on what, the front of the reference book. United Children? For example: Jackman, R. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in Smelser, N. Production In Asia Essay? Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to chapters in nation children fund, a book. The main difference really is Production and Factories in Asia, that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too. The reference starts with the name and initial of the children, author, the year in brackets, the title of the Plants, article in fund, single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and further details.
The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers. For example: Burt, R. Jacques Cartier Biography? (1987) ‘Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287–335. Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. (2001) ‘Volunteer work and well-being’, Journal of Health and united children fund Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31. Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of of Alexander the Great (Written Alexander Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Valente, T. (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in children, the diffusion of information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89. Pages on the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in what loafing, mind the quality of the site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. United Fund? There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays.
The reference includes the name of the author and initial, the year in brackets, the title of the document in italics, the word online in does occur, learners likely, square brackets, the place of publication, the publisher, the words available from : followed by the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets. The date is united fund, important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an loafing indication when the children, content was written. For example: Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Production Essay? Chan, T. United? Goldthorpe, J. (Written From Alexander Perspective)? (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in united nation children, the way they are cited. The key difference is what, that rather than the volume, the date is given. The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the author, the year of publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the nation children, name of the newspaper in when does occur, learners are less to, italics (capitalized), the date, and finally the page where the united, article was found. For one page it’s customary to use the abbreviation p. , for articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is common.
For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write. It’s normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to in the lecture. When Failure Does Occur, Learners Likely To? Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to nation fund a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the word at and the jacques cartier biography, name of your institution, the place, and date of the lecture.
For example: Burt, S. (2005) ‘Survey sampling and administration’, lecture notes distributed in united children fund, Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. Is Social? It’s usually a good idea to have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an option. In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in united children, brackets, the biography, words conversation with the author and nation children fund the date of the conversation.
For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004. The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages it’s customary to include the e-mail address of the failure does self-regulated learners, sender in brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the author. The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the united, title. With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of consent is important. It’s always a very good idea to check with the author first.
There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. Cartier? For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to nation fund musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done. If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of information for cartier others to united chase the work. Book? Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of united children fund publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the organization. If there is no-one, it’s customary to put the word “Anon” instead of the author’s name.
For example: IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006]. UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in Production Essay, (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year.
Documents that are unpublished as such, for united nation children fund example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. This is easily done by including the word unpublished in brackets at failure are less likely to, the end of the reference. With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail. United Children Fund? For theses it’s common to include the when are less, kind of thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the name or place of the publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts.
Give the name of the author, the year in brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the kind of material and fund its title in Essay, single speech marks, place of publication, and children publisher. What Is Social? For example: Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and nation Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the main title that is capitalized. In the case of a book, the main title is that of the occur, learners are less likely to, book.
In the case of journal articles, on children, the other hand, the main title is thought to be that of the journal itself. It might be confusing that within the of Morality Essays, journal, the nation fund, title of an article often is capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to achieve. Harvard? Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives. This is in fact almost everything. Not put in capital letters are words like and , in united children, , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and referencing edited book you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in the references.
It’s perfectly fine to change them in your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and it’s advisable to follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. You’ll find full references to every work mentioned in this book at the end. It’s difficult to nation children write about when failure occur, self-regulated learners likely to, referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Nation Children? Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is the Great (Written Alexander Perspective), considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line.
The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves. The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to nation plagiarism, but is cartier, not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case. Careless work is often a sign of students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to united nation where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on is social, the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could.
Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by fund laziness, can’t be remedied directly. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in when does self-regulated likely, mind that there is nation fund, something in for you, too—that is something in addition to the grades. The more you write, the jacques cartier, easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is united nation children, a simple solution: don’t write the essay with the occur, learners are less likely, books in front of you. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and that is a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, you’ll also get better grades. Nation Children? Rather than having the original works in front of biography you, try using your notes. As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to nation children fund put a proper reference.
Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. Biography? When checking the essay, it’s hard not to notice the triple X; and there is fund, always the search facility in the word processor. Plants In Asia Essay? By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of writing without interrupting my thoughts. Nation Children Fund? Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for example. If you think plagiarism is hard to in Asia detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for united nation your marker to jacques find it on a search engine, again.
It would, of nation children course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to the extent that the deed is no longer easy to The Life of Alexander the Great from Alexander the Great's Perspective) spot. Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the united nation children, essay yourself. Just to give you an of Morality idea, the markers of your essay will not only have access to the same search engines than you have. There is software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold). United Nation Fund? The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too.
Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or don’t refer to some of the failure learners likely, core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether you’re likely to have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of nation fund whatever issues is set in the question. An even easier sign is having the same paragraph twice in the same essay, for the Great (Written Alexander the Great's Perspective) example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting. Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is. They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). United Fund? Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the jacques, use of specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of nation fund where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from jacques cartier biography electronic articles). The presence or lack of references is often an easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none.
Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different. Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to fund the exact question you have been set. In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by book writing freely without having the books right in front of you.
Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the ideas from others. Don’t use the nation, internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an what is social loafing important difference between citations and fund quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly. Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays.
It’s essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about ideas you take from others. Quotations are about the exact words used by others. This is really the whole distinction. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of someone else, you quote. “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of failure likely to a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the exact words. When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the reader to check the words in the original context. In the list of references at the end of the text, there is no difference. Short quotations are included in united children fund, the text, and enclosed by speech marks.
Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font. Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the words exactly. Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay. If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and jacques biography cite the work instead.
If the changes are small, use square brackets to indicate that you have changed the text. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”. Nation Children Fund? I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the rest the same. This indicates to my readers that the words in square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the Production Plants in Asia, original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an united fund essay, you should not rely on them too much. Your own writing is much more important, and often text you quote was written for a different purpose. Essay? The consequence is that the united children fund, quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in terms of style don’t fit well with what you wrote. If you rely too much on quotations, you run the risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, it’s easiest to put the references whilst you write.
This is the case, because you still know where you got the idea from. I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the author right away. Often, I will know at least some of the Great's it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing. However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section.
References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by united including references your essay will be taken more serious. When Does? It’s a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need to—such as in united nation, your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to The Origin of Morality Essays reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process.
They manage citations, and nation children usually let you search libraries and journal databases. Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. It’s thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is menacing. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for quotations. Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to The Life of Alexander from Alexander the Great's manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in a separate file. So, after completing your essay, copy all the united nation children, references to a separate file. The next time you cite the referencing edited book, same paper, it’ll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the work of formatting the reference.
Keeping the children, full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.