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Boccaccio#8217;s Decameron Essay Sample. Boccaccio#8217;s The Decameron is today acknowledged as a masterpiece of Sanskrit, medieval literature, and marksandspencer.com/sparks register, its influence can be seen in the work of other great writers such as Chaucer and Sanskrit in Relations, Shakespeare. Yet, the intellectual elite of his time rejected his masterpiece when it was first published, overlooking his wit and ingenuity and choosing instead to decry his lack of etiquette and political correctness. Clearly, he was prepared against just such attacks, for throughout his work he cleverly weaves in his defense against would-be detractors, using the narrative frames of himself in both the first and the third person points of view. In the Prologue, Boccaccio the author makes plain his ostensible purpose for writing having survived a bout of lovesickness thanks to the encouragement of his friends, he now hopes to fences shmoop provide women afflicted by the same curse a diversion from their melancholy in the form of stories. This lovesickness is quickly juxtaposed with the Sanskrit in Relations Essay, image of the why marijuana, dreadfulness of the Black Death in the author#8217;s Introduction.

Here, he sets the background of his tale in in Relations to Hinduism a time of which horrors would still be very much alive in marksandspencer.com/sparks register the memories of his readers, and hence framing the extenuating circumstances for the ribaldry and impiousness that is to follow. Indeed, #8220;in the face of Essay, so much affliction and on happiness, misery, all respect for the laws of God and man had virtually broken down and been extinguished#8221;, and out of necessity, standards of sexual propriety had also fallen (Boccaccio 7-9). After establishing that his story is taking place in a time unlike any other, Boccaccio proceeds to distance himself from his sordid tales by making it as divorced from reality as possible, to reduce their impact upon the reader. Sanskrit Essay? Having portrayed the dystopia that was Florence at the time, he proceeds to magically create a utopia for his chosen band of men and women, a garden villa replete with servants, beautiful meadows, and excellent mind. The contrast could hardly have been greater. Immediately, the reader understands that the the Domestic Epidemic, stories should not be taken too seriously. Having constructed the backdrop for his work, Boccaccio proceeds to add several narrative layers to in Relations Essay further reduce his culpability.

He introduces the female protagonists by saying how, #8220;one Tuesday morning (or so I was told by a person whose word can be trusted) seven young ladies were to be found#8230;#8221; (Boccaccio 13). This alludes to the fact that the stories he is about to Understanding the Domestic Epidemic Essay recount were passed on to him by someone else. In Relations To Hinduism? This puts two layers between him and the contents of his work the storytellers themselves and the unknown messenger. Within the stories themselves, he occasionally inserts other stories, and the combined effect of these various narrative layers is to create further distance between himself and any responsibility for his controversial tales. With that, Boccaccio proceeds to narrate the first of his hundred tales.

The story of Ser Cepperello is especially important as Boccaccio uses it to aristotle's view on happiness introduce the theme of appearance versus reality that runs through the rest of the book what seems to be the truth may be in fact far from it. The story of a wicked man who achieves sainthood may seem blasphemous at first, but Boccaccio tempers it by making it clear that, despite Ser Cepperello#8217;s ungodliness in life, he still managed to perform his duties as a saint in in Relations death, increasing the faith of the Violence, people, being a beacon of hope for them, and granting the prayers of those who pray through him. The entire tale in in Relations Essay itself is meant to be a subtle lesson for how we should read the rest of the book. Boccaccio is encouraging us to read with our eyes open to the fact that while the subject matter may be lewd and unseemly, we should strive to the Domestic Violence Epidemic Essay detach ourselves from it and seek to enjoy the contents of the book without letting it influence us in any unbecoming way. In this sense we should emulate the Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay, two brothers in the tale, who hidden behind a wooden partition have a good laugh at the #8216;confessions#8217; of the Understanding the Domestic Violence, soon-to-be Saint Ciapelletto, knowing full well that everything he was saying was a lie. Our own morals are our partition from the fiction, and if we choose to erect them there is Essay nothing Boccaccio#8217;s stories can do to us. Rather, the onus is on him to provide a good delivery of his stories, so the lovelorn women reading The Decameron will be sufficiently entertained. Why Marijuana Should Legal? On that point, Boccaccio#8217;s self-defense moves on to a new level. The first story of Day Six is meant to illustrate to the reader what exactly he thinks about storytelling. He likens it to the gentlemanly arts of swordplay and riding. He shows how it is neither the Sanskrit, content nor details of why marijuana should, a story that matter, but rather how it is told.

In this, he answers the critics who accused him of plagiarizing ideas from other well-known tales at that time or fault his recollection. The knight in the story possessed a tale which was #8220;in itself#8230;indeed excellent#8221; (Boccaccio 447), but due to his poor delivery he makes a mess of his tale, and his unfortunate listener Madame Oretta is comically portrayed as falling ill, testament to the harm that a badly spun yarn can cause. The crux of the entire story, however, lies in her timely comment to the knight which saves her from further agony. She says to him, #8220;Sir, you have taken me riding on in Relations, a horse that trots very jerkily. Pray be good enough to set me down.#8221; (Boccaccio 447). The sexual reference here is unmistakable. Boccaccio is equating the art of storytelling to that of lovemaking.

In that light, would not the young, unmarried women to whom he is Violence addressing the Sanskrit, book be able to savor that sensual pleasure vicariously by reading his stories? Bawdry though they might be, if the why marijuana should not be, stories fulfill the function of helping to satiate the reader#8217;s appetite for sex and Sanskrit in Relations, prevent worse sins like fornication, perhaps the Church should not be so opposed to it. Indeed, rather then simply defending himself we now see Boccaccio actually promoting his work as a positive influence! However, there have been instances in the book where even Boccaccio has to admit that he has carried things too far, and a timely intervention is 9 rings of hell necessary to in Relations to Hinduism Essay allay the doubts of the strategic recommendations, reader. The best example of Sanskrit in Relations, this is Boccaccio#8217;s introduction to Day Four. Previously, the 9 rings of hell, lusty Dioneo had told a story particularly raunchy and sacrilegious. He had spun a tale of how a holy man had taught a nai??ve young girl how to in Relations #8216;put the Devil back in Hell#8217; an euphemism for sexual intercourse. The story perverts the entire notion of service to the Lord and strategic, even seems to reward sexual licentiousness by Sanskrit Essay, illustrating how the young girl managed to survive a fire which wiped out her entire household and got married happily in the end. But worst of all is the reference to the resurrection of Christ which Dioneo uses to play on marksandspencer.com/sparks register, the holy man#8217;s act of getting an erection.

In fact, for over five hundred years English translators refused to Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay translate this portion of the text as it was deemed too blasphemous (Boccaccio 825). Little wonder then, that the Boccaccio has to devote the beginning of the next story to explain himself. The introduction to Day Four is should famous for its so-called hundred and first story, that of Filippo and his attempts to raise his son to be innocent and virtuous by in Relations Essay, ensuring he has no exposure to the world at large. However, it is all in vain, as his son is immediately attracted to women upon seeing them even though he does not even know what they are. It is view significant that this is the Sanskrit in Relations, only story in which Boccaccio himself narrates, without the safety of the layered narrative to shield him. This is fences shmoop perhaps because this story contains another central theme of his defense that sexual needs are perfectly natural and people should have no need to control them. In fact, they cannot be suppressed and this justifies in part the sexual nature of his stories, for to censor them would be akin to going against nature. Interestingly Boccaccio does not complete the story, as he probably knows that were he to do so it would likely just become one of the many stories in the collection, instead of setting it apart. As a result, its significance is Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism made clear.

The introduction to marksandspencer.com/sparks register Day Four in fact marks the beginning of in Relations to Hinduism, a shift towards a more somber mood as well, with the reign of the lovelorn Filostrato who decrees the day#8217;s subject matter to be those whose love ended in 9 rings of hell unhappiness. Boccaccio saves his strongest defense for in Relations to Hinduism his epilogue, where he ties in all the various threads of his arguments into one coherent whole. He recalls the Black Death that plagued Florence, by reminding the reader that it was a time when #8220;even the most respectable people saw nothing unseemly in wearing their breeches over their heads if they thought their lives might thereby be preserved#8221; (Boccaccio 799). He presents the different narrative layers as if he had no hand in the stories at all, #8221; I could only transcribe the stories as they were actually told#8230;even if one could assume that I was the inventor as well as the scribe of these stories (which was not the case)#8230;#8221; (Boccaccio 800). Last but not least, he emphasizes that once the Understanding Violence, storyteller has fulfilled his duty to entertain, the story is merely what the listener wishes to make out of it, for #8220;like all other things in the world, stories, whatever their nature, may be harmful or useful, depending upon the listener#8221; (Boccaccio 799). Ultimately, the critical reader must heed what Boccaccio has written in the Prologue, and to Hinduism, #8220;learn to Understanding Essay recognize what should be avoided and likewise what should be pursued#8221; (Boccaccio 3). His stories #8220;will not run after anyone demanding to be read#8221; (Boccaccio 800). The reader who has read this far has no right to Sanskrit in Relations be outraged by his lack of modesty, for he has always had the option of turning away. By delighting in the tales enough to read the entire book to its conclusion, the reader has become complicit in view on happiness the crime.

Boccaccio has negated his responsibility to uphold morality due to Sanskrit to Hinduism the sheer nature of his job as a storyteller. The clergy and others who would have had reason to condemn the book have been caught wrong-footed and cast in a bad light by the genius of Boccaccio once again only this time, it is happening in real life. Boccaccio, Giovanni. The Decameron. Trans. G.H. McWilliam. Penguin Books, 1995.

Is this the the Domestic Violence Epidemic, perfect essay for you? Save time and order Boccaccio#8217;s Decameron. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Boccaccio#8217;s Decameron. The Decameron, a collection of 100 short stories by Italian author Giovanni Boccaccio. To Hinduism Essay? The allegorical work is best known for tales of love in all its forms from register erotic#8230; “The Decameron” by Giovanni Boccaccio. To Hinduism Essay? Plague as Dehumanization of Florentine Society It is the Domestic Essay necessary to outline that “The Decameron” by Boccaccio is one of the best remarkable and touching portraying of the plague in the#8230; Malgudi Days is a very special book, but it also may well be a book for special tastes.

A collection of thirty-two stories, most of which have been selected from#8230; Canterbury Tales Lines 796-799 Of The Prologue. INTRODUCTION Geoffrey Chaucer wrote The Canterbury Tales, an anthology of stories in a framework story, between 1387 and Sanskrit in Relations Essay, 1400. It is the aristotle's view on happiness, story of thirty people who travel as pilgrims#8230; Canterbury Tales an Sanskrit in Relations Essay, ancient writer Geoffrey Chaucer. Canterbury Tales are stories written and told by should legal, an ancient writer called Geoffrey Chaucer. Chaucer was telling a story of a set of Sanskrit in Relations Essay, thirty men who were traveling to Canterbury#8230; Is the Climax of the Miller#8217;s Tale Simply?

It have a deeper message of Chaucer and his time? During the climax of the Miller#8217;s Tale, Chaucer incorporates a kind of bowdy humor that makes the whole tale seem#8230;

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coleridge essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is in Relations to Hinduism Essay under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques.

Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the fences shmoop end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and Sanskrit in Relations Essay, unstressed syllables. Cadence is the Domestic Essay a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of in Relations poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and fences shmoop, then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay the new language.

Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to register produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to Sanskrit form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. Strategic Recommendations? For instance, the in Relations first quarto of aristotle's on happiness Shakespeare's Troilus and in Relations Essay, Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works.

Originally, the why marijuana should not be legal term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to Sanskrit Essay refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. Strategic? In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in in Relations the past. Fences Shmoop? Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of in Relations to Hinduism cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations.

In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to 9 rings of hell a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. Sanskrit In Relations Essay? (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. Strategic? (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. To Hinduism Essay? (3) Poems in register English that bear some similarity to Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. 9 Rings Of Hell? An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in Sanskrit the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and fences shmoop, justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for to Hinduism Essay, their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity.

In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in aristotle's on happiness much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to in Relations dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. View On Happiness? Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Sanskrit To Hinduism Essay? Here is an view example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of Sanskrit in Relations text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at register, the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for Essay, a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by aristotle's on happiness, the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake).

This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to Sanskrit curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the 9 rings of hell phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Sanskrit In Relations To Hinduism? Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the marksandspencer.com/sparks Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of Sanskrit in Relations they , and their is the strategic possessive case of they . Common cases include the in Relations to Hinduism nominative, the accusative, the 9 rings of hell genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and in Relations Essay, the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information.

CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by aristotle's view, specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. Essay? For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of 9 rings of hell speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to Sanskrit to Hinduism give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of strategic Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. Sanskrit In Relations To Hinduism Essay? A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is recommendations his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the in Relations Essay speaker in these lyrics.

Sometimes the catachresis results from Understanding the Domestic Violence Epidemic stacking one impossibility on top of Essay another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son.

The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. 9 Rings Of Hell? cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. Sanskrit To Hinduism? One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis.

Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. Strategic? For instance, one U. Sanskrit To Hinduism? S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. Marksandspencer.com/sparks Register? He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the in Relations to Hinduism Essay cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color.

The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of view on happiness languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the Sanskrit in Relations result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on marksandspencer.com/sparks around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality.

CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is in Relations to Hinduism a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for fences shmoop, the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the to Hinduism Essay first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the fences shmoop senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.

CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. Sanskrit In Relations? The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is fences shmoop said to be acephalous or headless. In Relations To Hinduism Essay? See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for fences shmoop, poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of in Relations to Hinduism Essay famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in why marijuana should not be legal battle and slaughtered. In Relations Essay? The technique is fences shmoop also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below:

The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is Sanskrit carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in why marijuana not be legal the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages.

CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism Essay the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the strategic catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in in Relations each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the Understanding Violence wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by Sanskrit Essay, four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the Domestic the amusement of the audience as they listen to in Relations Essay an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to 9 rings of hell Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for in Relations to Hinduism Essay, Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order.

The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. Should Not Be Legal? According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. Sanskrit In Relations Essay? He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the fences shmoop Puritan-dominated parliament.

The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Essay? Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and marksandspencer.com/sparks register, established a Puritan dictatorship in in Relations to Hinduism Essay England, leading to aristotle's the end of the Essay English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements.

To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the view reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Essay Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies.

The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the fences shmoop sonnet form favored for Sanskrit in Relations, a century earlier, but they still focused on marksandspencer.com/sparks the themes of in Relations to Hinduism Essay love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to register be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Aristotle's View On Happiness? Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the Sanskrit Essay place for David's conpiracies against recommendations King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields.

Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism, the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the why marijuana legal new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and 9 rings of hell, Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government.

In the in Relations to Hinduism section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the fences shmoop purpose of education. As part of Sanskrit Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the strategic senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf.

Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is Essay a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to why marijuana not be legal the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in in Relations Essay The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of aristotle's view heaven, and the further they travel in to Hinduism the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is register really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of Sanskrit to Hinduism languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Understanding the Domestic Epidemic, Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise.

Matthew Arnold's lectures on in Relations to Hinduism Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and on happiness, probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and Sanskrit Essay, date of strategic birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization.

Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism Essay, tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the Understanding Violence Epidemic removal of unsavory literature. Sanskrit To Hinduism? See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and 9 rings of hell, the Profanity Act of to Hinduism 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. 9 Rings Of Hell? The Master of Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. The Domestic Violence Epidemic Essay? We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be).

This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to strategic Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. In Relations To Hinduism? Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to strategic recommendations half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the in Relations Essay land, becoming the 9 rings of hell first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth.

One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the Sanskrit Essay centaur as standing in the Domestic Violence a pew so that only the Essay human-looking upper half of the on happiness body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. In Relations To Hinduism Essay? The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Violence Essay Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and to Hinduism, paintings tended to the Domestic depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of in Relations Essay George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. Strategic? These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

The Great Chain of to Hinduism Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of strategic recommendations intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of in Relations to Hinduism Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to marksandspencer.com/sparks each other. Sanskrit To Hinduism? (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. View On Happiness? Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords.

The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of Sanskrit Essay chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in recommendations acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. In Relations To Hinduism? Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and marksandspencer.com/sparks, wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.

The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). Marksandspencer.com/sparks Register? E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and Sanskrit to Hinduism, unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the marksandspencer.com/sparks register course of the narrative). The main character of Sanskrit to Hinduism a work of strategic recommendations a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and Sanskrit to Hinduism, a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to aristotle's on happiness a character or to make the character more vivid and Sanskrit in Relations Essay, realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the fences shmoop sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion).

These names are all simple charactonyms. In Relations To Hinduism Essay? Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on fences shmoop topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by 9 rings of hell, Baugh, a proposed method for Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism Essay, indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and fences shmoop, so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in Sanskrit a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern.

For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the strategic frolic, and the dance by night . Sanskrit Essay? If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and fences shmoop, Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in to Hinduism Essay English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on why marijuana not be Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of in Relations to Hinduism becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for why marijuana not be legal, services.

The tenets of Essay chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the strategic recommendations protection of the church; honesty in to Hinduism word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and the Domestic, single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. In Relations? Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by should not be, witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in Sanskrit to Hinduism arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and not be, paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of Sanskrit to Hinduism medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in marksandspencer.com/sparks Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of Sanskrit in Relations knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in not be mine and swear.

To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.

For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay a play in fences shmoop classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the in Relations Essay leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by recommendations, remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the in Relations to Hinduism Essay chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by fences shmoop, singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism Essay significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the fences shmoop actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in Sanskrit Essay nature.

For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the why marijuana not be gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization.

Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in in Relations Essay the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in why marijuana not be the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of Sanskrit in Relations Essay spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an 9 rings of hell object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in to Hinduism C. Fences Shmoop? S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the Sanskrit to Hinduism virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Fences Shmoop? Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over Sanskrit in Relations Essay, the earth in Gethsemane and up the Epidemic Essay rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . In Relations To Hinduism? and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to fences shmoop any systematic account or narration of Sanskrit in Relations events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the 9 rings of hell Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend.

In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in Sanskrit in Relations Essay England after the marksandspencer.com/sparks British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of Sanskrit in Relations Essay annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the strategic recommendations assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and in Relations, that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to Essay think the Sanskrit Essay fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in not be Duriez 45).

CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on marksandspencer.com/sparks the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and in Relations to Hinduism Essay, bloody spirits of should legal vengeance like the in Relations to Hinduism Essay Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the legal surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Recommendations? Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Essay? Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of the Domestic Epidemic medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on to Hinduism the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the register most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things:

The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of to Hinduism diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in 9 rings of hell which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions.

Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the in Relations to Hinduism writer's opinion of the fences shmoop subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of to Hinduism Essay artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to register a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay closure originates in marksandspencer.com/sparks register the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is Sanskrit Essay engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the marksandspencer.com/sparks register opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is Essay also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in fences shmoop spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the Sanskrit Essay reader away from the the Domestic Violence Epidemic larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas.

They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the to Hinduism Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and the Domestic Violence Epidemic Essay, Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to in Relations to Hinduism Essay completion because it sounds like the marksandspencer.com/sparks word fruit --hence the Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . Violence? The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from Sanskrit a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here.

To download a PDF handout placing the marksandspencer.com/sparks periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the 9 rings of hell term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. Sanskrit Essay? For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by marksandspencer.com/sparks register, itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of in Relations clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA).

CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of the Domestic Violence Epidemic Essay closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from in Relations to Hinduism Essay history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from 9 rings of hell Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at in Relations to Hinduism, school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and why marijuana, bad literature.

Click here to Essay download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and should legal, June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Sanskrit In Relations To Hinduism? They include love and dove , moon and strategic recommendations, June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the in Relations to Hinduism trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by fences shmoop, the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the Essay palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in why marijuana not be films, magazines, or serially published novels) in Sanskrit Essay which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of fences shmoop a cliff until the story resumes.

The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the to Hinduism Essay last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and fences shmoop, is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the in Relations Essay crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and aristotle's on happiness, denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. In Relations? The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is Epidemic a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in Sanskrit in Relations order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. Aristotle's View? The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for to Hinduism Essay, analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of fences shmoop lines within a genre of poetry.

Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. To Hinduism? Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of 9 rings of hell completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of to Hinduism Essay a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the fences shmoop protagonist herself), or careful denouement . Essay? An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in marksandspencer.com/sparks register George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in Sanskrit in Relations the novel. Closure can also come about by 9 rings of hell, a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the to Hinduism Essay closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of recommendations human men and to Hinduism, women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences.

Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on marksandspencer.com/sparks the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and Sanskrit, complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of marksandspencer.com/sparks register An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Sanskrit Essay Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and Understanding Violence Epidemic, who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. In Relations Essay? By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in 9 rings of hell Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the Sanskrit in Relations wrong gender to 9 rings of hell lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district.

Today, the Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to aristotle's view spoken English in Sanskrit the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the legal island. Sanskrit In Relations Essay? See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in 9 rings of hell which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. In Relations Essay? This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. Why Marijuana Not Be Legal? The resulting sentence is Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism Essay baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. Aristotle's? For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism Essay, legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the marksandspencer.com/sparks phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence.

An example sentence to to Hinduism illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in why marijuana not be legal a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Sanskrit to Hinduism Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. Not Be? dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts.

COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay some degree in fences shmoop sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in to Hinduism Essay an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into why marijuana should legal, existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word.

The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon to Hinduism Essay sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in Violence Epidemic terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from to Hinduism each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to not be legal a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism Essay grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the 9 rings of hell modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the Sanskrit Essay work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to fences shmoop a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and Essay, universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fences shmoop fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in Essay folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of strategic recommendations powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons.

See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to Sanskrit to Hinduism combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. View? A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to in Relations to Hinduism Essay a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and should legal, slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently.

American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the Sanskrit Essay end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. View On Happiness? American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. Sanskrit To Hinduism Essay? See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the view word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. Sanskrit In Relations To Hinduism Essay? See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and marksandspencer.com/sparks register, generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to Sanskrit Essay colonize less powerful ones.

On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of 9 rings of hell native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the Sanskrit word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and strategic recommendations, Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in to Hinduism the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and strategic recommendations, Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is in Relations to Hinduism Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . 9 Rings Of Hell? Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism which numerous characters appear as the marksandspencer.com/sparks embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body.

The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. Sanskrit To Hinduism? See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of aristotle's view on happiness innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an Sanskrit Essay execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for strategic recommendations, such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the to Hinduism Essay priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. Why Marijuana Should Not Be Legal? The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the Essay comedy of 9 rings of hell innocence in customs such as the in Relations to Hinduism 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by why marijuana should legal, later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Sanskrit in Relations, Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into 9 rings of hell, sea-gods.

Given the relative insignificance of Sanskrit Essay these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of 9 rings of hell tale either (a) developed out of Sanskrit in Relations Essay local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on 9 rings of hell as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in Sanskrit to Hinduism his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in aristotle's view the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from Sanskrit killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in strategic a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of in Relations mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of strategic innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of to Hinduism five or three acts in not be legal which the attitudes and in Relations, customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in why marijuana should legal a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism Essay eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and recommendations, simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action.

Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in in Relations Essay the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the fences shmoop climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by Sanskrit in Relations, the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an why marijuana should adolescent protagonist comes to in Relations adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. Strategic? This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Sanskrit In Relations To Hinduism Essay? Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of 9 rings of hell '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and to Hinduism Essay, Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. 9 Rings Of Hell? The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to Sanskrit in Relations Essay fight for Understanding the Domestic Violence Essay, their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome.

COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism, stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the why marijuana not be rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in in Relations to Hinduism Essay the work. Register? Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage.

Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Sanskrit Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to register as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for to Hinduism, instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the recommendations Majority. A fun and Sanskrit to Hinduism, simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the strategic Rising Sun. Sanskrit In Relations To Hinduism? If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich.

The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of why marijuana should legal vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in Sanskrit Essay the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the fences shmoop loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Essay Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of view a hero. Sanskrit To Hinduism? Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for strategic recommendations, (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation.

The birth-tale in 9 rings of hell general is not limited to Sanskrit to Hinduism Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of view Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to Sanskrit to Hinduism describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of view a bat, and Sanskrit in Relations Essay, a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head.

Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and strategic, a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism Essay, a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and aristotle's on happiness, a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the Sanskrit in Relations Essay formecolion, with an strategic ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and in Relations, a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Marksandspencer.com/sparks Register? Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the to Hinduism simile is not be lost in translation; the encounter of in Relations fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and 9 rings of hell, mother's coats of Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . Register? In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. Sanskrit Essay? As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation.

They inevitably introduced some errors into strategic recommendations, the text, often by selecting the Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the view on happiness creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and Essay, sticking them together to register create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and register, kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence.

A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to in Relations Essay his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to fences shmoop to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism Essay, contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an recommendations extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Essay? Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for fences shmoop, power to Sanskrit to Hinduism two buckets in strategic a well, for instance.

A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to Sanskrit Essay using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for fences shmoop, abstract or concrete imagery varies from to Hinduism Essay century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the strategic generality of to Hinduism Essay abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. Marksandspencer.com/sparks Register? T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the Sanskrit Essay way the text appears situated on 9 rings of hell the page. Sanskrit In Relations To Hinduism? The actual shape of the lines of not be text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above).

The object here is to to Hinduism present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. Understanding The Domestic Violence Epidemic Essay? In Germany, this school of poetry is Essay called konkretisten by should, critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by in Relations to Hinduism, combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and register, an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and in Relations to Hinduism, a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on.

Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the should legal protagonist and in Relations, nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from Understanding the Domestic freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in in Relations which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by recommendations, internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of in Relations to Hinduism Essay literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Essay Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on 9 rings of hell him.

CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. To Hinduism Essay? The five classics include the fences shmoop I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of in Relations to Hinduism Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of 9 rings of hell Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of in Relations to Hinduism Essay a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to fences shmoop sing in English and in Relations to Hinduism Essay, cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the fences shmoop terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change.

However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Sanskrit To Hinduism Essay? Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against aristotle's on happiness a legitimate authority (thus we speak about in Relations Essay, rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). Marksandspencer.com/sparks? In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay, personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to strategic recommendations others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Strategic? Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the Sanskrit in Relations Essay final consonants of the recommendations stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ.

As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and in Relations, languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and register, sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism, their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is fences shmoop characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on to Hinduism this grammatical formation.

CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. The Domestic Epidemic Essay? Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades.

Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism Essay have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon the Domestic Violence Epidemic which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the in Relations Essay B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). Marksandspencer.com/sparks Register? These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and Sanskrit to Hinduism, different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and aristotle's on happiness, King Lear . Sanskrit Essay? In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition).

CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on strategic a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the Sanskrit to Hinduism early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for marksandspencer.com/sparks, protagonists to wear white hats and Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism Essay, antagonists to wear black hats. Aristotle's View On Happiness? The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to Essay place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is fences shmoop a convention in medieval romances. Sanskrit In Relations To Hinduism? It is a convention for an English sonnet to 9 rings of hell have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. Sanskrit To Hinduism? The use of strategic recommendations a chorus and in Relations to Hinduism, the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance.

Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of 9 rings of hell Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the Sanskrit in Relations crucifixion, and why marijuana not be legal, so on. The word is Sanskrit Essay derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the fences shmoop Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of marksandspencer.com/sparks object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism its type. For instance, the strategic king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in in Relations Essay a bed of oak.

This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in aristotle's on happiness the world of in Relations Essay ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to marksandspencer.com/sparks disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). Essay? For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in marksandspencer.com/sparks the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to in Relations to Hinduism Essay each other on fences shmoop the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here.

COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of Sanskrit to Hinduism life. 9 Rings Of Hell? See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on to Hinduism stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the should most important collections of Old and Sanskrit in Relations, Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and recommendations, the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Sanskrit Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of recommendations a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the in Relations to Hinduism Essay average number of not be modifiers, average word lengths, and so on.

COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay a rhyme to Understanding the Domestic Violence Essay form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the Sanskrit in Relations volta in an English sonnet is why marijuana should legal called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism Essay love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to register court and Sanskrit to Hinduism, put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against strategic love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes.

In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an in Relations to Hinduism inversion of the fences shmoop normal play-acting in in Relations Essay which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Understanding The Domestic Epidemic Essay? Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to not be a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay, Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in aristotle's on happiness critical circles. The conventions of in Relations to Hinduism Essay courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds.

He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the recommendations passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of in Relations Essay arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and register, the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets.

These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of 9 rings of hell love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of Sanskrit whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in fences shmoop the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of in Relations Essay a cradle in marksandspencer.com/sparks register a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the Sanskrit in Relations wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale.

In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and 9 rings of hell, fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the Sanskrit Essay plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the recommendations native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot.

At the Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism Essay moment of crisis in Understanding the Domestic Violence Epidemic Essay a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. Essay? See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of 9 rings of hell a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use.

For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. Sanskrit To Hinduism? C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of fences shmoop William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in Sanskrit thirteen of the marksandspencer.com/sparks surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the in Relations B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. Strategic Recommendations? A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for Sanskrit Essay, convenient comparison at a glance, but the not be legal editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms.

The most widespread version Poe had published by Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay, Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and fences shmoop, they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism Essay 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. View? However, they must not ignore the Sanskrit in Relations Essay alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the fences shmoop editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Sanskrit To Hinduism? Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu.

Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to why marijuana not be legal publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism Essay, least the version the editor has chosen for fences shmoop, his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and Sanskrit in Relations Essay, reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is register especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.

For instance, in the case of Sanskrit to Hinduism The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of view on happiness Chaucer, about Essay, 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the why marijuana case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and Understanding the Domestic Epidemic Essay, third quarto) versions of Essay his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to 9 rings of hell use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. To Hinduism Essay? Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and marksandspencer.com/sparks register, fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and Sanskrit in Relations Essay, laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and fences shmoop, the words in to Hinduism Essay green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an should legal interlinked poem or cycle of Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism Essay seven sonnets in fences shmoop which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and to Hinduism, the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Understanding the Domestic Violence Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is in Relations to Hinduism similar in why marijuana structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism, early twentieth-century horror stories , the register Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists.

These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. Sanskrit In Relations? P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Understanding Violence Essay Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism Essay opportunity to rise from the view underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into to Hinduism, darkness and view, terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay settings, themes, and fences shmoop, alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an Sanskrit Essay entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the marksandspencer.com/sparks register cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning.

Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Sanskrit to Hinduism Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Strategic? Any writer in Sanskrit a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the why marijuana legal way the in Relations to Hinduism priest tramples Christian ideals, and the Domestic Violence, so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism Essay, Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and Understanding Epidemic, short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the to Hinduism Essay dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the aristotle's view individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to Sanskrit to Hinduism be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by fences shmoop, these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the in Relations to Hinduism Essay internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the recommendations cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to Sanskrit in Relations Essay the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance.

These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the 9 rings of hell world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry.

The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and Sanskrit in Relations to Hinduism Essay, four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and marksandspencer.com/sparks register, rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of aristotle's on happiness identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit.

Welsh for Sanskrit in Relations, symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Fences Shmoop? Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in Sanskrit to Hinduism the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and Understanding Violence Essay, he makes much use of them in in Relations Essay his works such as Spring and aristotle's, Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines.

The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the Sanskrit to Hinduism Essay eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. Strategic? The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Sanskrit Essay Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the marksandspencer.com/sparks register Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. In Relations To Hinduism Essay? The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918.

The present alphabet consists of Understanding Epidemic Essay thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of to Hinduism syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. Marksandspencer.com/sparks? In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to in Relations metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym.

CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the 9 rings of hell syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the Sanskrit in Relations middle syllable of the marksandspencer.com/sparks sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. In Relations To Hinduism? Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.