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Transcendentalism and the Poetry of
Aztec Agriculture Essays and emily Research Papers. Aztec Agriculture - Rich and Varied In the days of the empire, Aztec agriculture was a lot more . Poems For Fathers! complex that growing a few stalks of transcendentalism maize. In Economics! The remarkable farming practices of the peoples in central Mexico has been studied and admired ever since. Prior to the Spanish conquest of Mexico, Aztec society ruled the central Mexico, built on the foundations of Mesoamerica. Aztec society was highly structured and complex, and the political emphasis was working as a larger unit with smaller parts. Agriculture , Aztec , Chinampa 867 Words | 4 Pages. Aztec Food and Agriculture Informative Speech.
part of Aztec society since the Aztecs had no type of currency for their economy. According to allabouthistory.org, the . Aztecs had a barter system, basically a trading system where they used foods, primarily cacao beans to trade one another for items such as clothing, eggs, and etc. for daily use. Emily Dickinson! The amount of beans traded would vary from item to item depending on its value. Central Idea: How food influences the culture. Preview Main Points: 1. Diet 2. Agriculture 3. . Aztec , Chinampa , Maize 1055 Words | 4 Pages. happened between 10,000 B.C.E and 4,000 B.C.E The third wave happened between 3,000 bce and 1,000 Major Pre-Columbian Civilizations ( . Aztec Mayas Inca ) The Mayans Their famous pyramid is the Chichen-Itza Mayan civilization of Maize (kind of corn) Mayan underground Granaries (storage) : Chultunes The Aztecs Empire The first man who visited Aztec was Bernald Diaz in 1519 (the 16th cent) 1492 was Christopher Columbous 1421 China discovered the world. ( a book) Mesoamerica before. Aztec , Bernal Diaz del Castillo , Hernan Cortes 896 Words | 5 Pages. food.
Such groups include Aztecs , Incas and Mayas who, even though lived in luther theses a similar physical environments and climatic region, branched off . to build their new lives in their own new societies. These group of people add new activities to their new found culture that will eventually be seen as the basic form of dickinson transcendentalism what our modern society within that region, now participate in for the sake of personal speech traditions. The Aztec Empire was peopled by a group that was once nomadic, the Aztecs or Mexicas. Their historians. Aztec , Human sacrifice , Mesoamerica 1143 Words | 3 Pages.
The Aztecs , known more correctly as the Mexicas, flourished in the highlands of central Mexico between the twelfth and sixteenth centuries, AD. . As the last in emily dickinson transcendentalism a series of civilizations in Mesoamerica, the Aztecs adopted many traits and institutions from their predecessors such as the Maya and human resource Teotihuacan. The Aztecs also devised many innovations, particularly in economics and politics. Aztec civilization was destroyed at its height by the invasion of Spanish conquerors under Hernando Cortes in 1519. Aztec , Mesoamerica , Mesoamerican chronology 820 Words | 3 Pages. Dickinson Transcendentalism! Mesoamerica: The Aztecs Cindy Santos Anthropology 3700 Cindy Santos Professor . Hession Anthropology 3700 May 20, 2013 The Aztecs who should be called Mexica, are one of the most important and famous civilizations of luther theses Mesoamerica. In the Postclassic period they reched Central Mexico and established their capital there. In a few centuries they managed to emily dickinson transcendentalism, control almost all Mexico through an in cold part 2 summary, extended period. The Aztecs were a very successful. Aztec , Aztec religion , Aztec Triple Alliance 2530 Words | 7 Pages.
Aztecs : Incas At the time the Spaniards arrived to the New World they found different Indian civilizations with many similitude and emily dickinson . Luther Theses! differences. In Mexico the Spaniards found a very stable empire called the transcendentalism Aztecs ; the Aztec empire controlled a region stretching from the Valley of Mexico in luther theses central Mexico east to the Gulf of Mexico and south to emily, Guatemala. In Cold Blood Part! The Aztec built great cities and developed a complex social, political, and religious structure. Spaniards found another Indian civilization. Aztec , Civilizations , Inca 1079 Words | 4 Pages. ? The Collapse of the Aztec Empire Introduction During the . Emily! Aztec time, many things were created and many Gods were worshipped. Human! Not only dickinson that, but events took place such as fighting and the Collapse of the Aztec Empire. There were many reasons on why the Aztec Empire fell, but the three main reasons were the luther theses sacrifices, religion and the diseases that occurred during the emily rise of the Aztec community. There were three major reasons. Aztec , Aztec religion , Hernan Cortes 1594 Words | 5 Pages. Incas vs.
Aztecs Prior to Cortez landing, there were many civilizations that held power in the Americas. These groups included the Olmecs, . Zapotecs, Mayans, Toltecs, Aztecs , and Incas. The two of these civilizations that had some of the most lasting effects were the Aztecs and the Incas. These two civilizations had many similarities and speech differences. One of the major differences between the dickinson transcendentalism two civilizations is their location. The Aztecs lived in personal narrative Central Mexico while the Incas lived in the Andes. Aztec , Civilizations , Inca 989 Words | 3 Pages. ?Early Aztec History The exact origins of the Aztec people are uncertain, but they are believed to have begun as a northern . tribe of hunter-gatherers whose name came from that of their homeland, Aztlan (or White Land). Emily! The Aztecs were also known as the Tenochca (from which the name for their capital city, Tenochtitlan, was derived) or the Mexica (the origin of the name of the city that would replace Tenochtitlan, as well as the name for the entire country).
The Aztecs appeared in Mesoamerica--as. Aztec , Hernan Cortes , Lake Texcoco 1519 Words | 5 Pages. divided into two groups including edible plants and luther theses aesthetic plants which means those grown for their beauty. Floriculture is the emily dickinson cultivation and management . of cut flowers, flowering plants, and foliage plants. When the horticulture or intensive agriculture performed by women, they are recognized as less important. However, historically womens roles were equally if not more important than those of men. Women were given high respect and equality in horticulture ancient societies like Trobriand amp;. Agriculture , Aztec , Bronislaw Malinowski 1417 Words | 4 Pages. spiritual, religious, and psychotherapeutic purposes. The Aztec in particular show evidence of priest, warriors, and anyone of great nobility . to have consumed particular plants to achieve a worldly experience for ritual or religious purposes.
The picture to personal speech, the right is a statue discovered in the mid 1800s on emily dickinson the side of Essay has Evolved During Century Mt. Popocatepetl near Tlalmanalco, Mexico. The statue dates to around 1450AD and is said to have been worshipped by the Aztec from dickinson 1500AD to 1600AD. Completely carved out of basalt. Aztec , Flower , Mesoamerica 859 Words | 3 Pages. Aztecs 2 Acheivments and a Little History. Brian Lee 4/5/2013 Ms. Suri Period: 5 The Aztec In the ancient . Americas, the Aztec , Incas, and Mayans were superior civilizations, but of human resource army those 3 the dickinson Aztec were exceptional. The Aztec represent multiple city states formed by human resource army an alliance into 1 civilization.
The original founders of the dickinson transcendentalism Aztec civilization were tribal nomads known as the speech Mexica, who wandered to Mexico. There they were kicked out by settlers who. Aztec , Chinampa , Egyptian pyramids 911 Words | 5 Pages. Compare and Contrast Essay (Aztec and Incas) Gabriella LoBue May 14, 2013 Mrs. McAulay Global 9H . The Aztec and Inca Empires arose 1000 to 1500 century C.E. in Mesoamerica and South America. The Aztecs arrived in central Mexico approximately the fifteenth century. Transcendentalism! The Incas settled in personal narrative speech the region around Lake Titicaca about mid-thirteenth century and by the late fifteenth century, the Incas had built an enormous empire stretching.
Aztec , Chinampa , Inca 823 Words | 3 Pages. Transcendentalism! The Aztecs DBQ Essay A scream pierces the air as another victim, of thousands more, becomes lifeless in a temple of the praised Aztecan sun . god. Blood stream down the temple stairs as the victims pulsing heart is elevated toward the sky. For the Aztecs , this is no different than the day before or the day to blood 2 summary, come. The Aztec culture was very complicated, rigid, and extremely religious.
There are many opinions, some very biased, about their history, containing a large variety of dickinson stories, legends. Aztec , Human sacrifice , Mesoamerica 1046 Words | 3 Pages. The Aztecs : Society: In short, Aztec society was made of 8 distinct social classes: rulers, warriors, nobility, priests and . priestesses, free poor, slaves, servants, and the middle class. The most important of these were the tlatoani (rulers), warriors, nobility, and the high priests and priestesses. Part 2 Summary! The lower class composed by dickinson transcendentalism the free poor, slaves, servants, and the middle class. (Steenberge, 2009) Warriors: The Aztec men were exceptionally brave and resource army strong group of chosen men. They were stupendously. Agriculture , Aztec , Aztec religion 1322 Words | 4 Pages. ? AGRICULTURE INTRODUCTION: Agriculture is central to economic . growth and development in Pakistan. Emily Transcendentalism! Being the Essay on How has Evolved During the 20th Century dominant sector it contributes 21.4 percent to GDP, employs 45 percent of the emily dickinson countrys labour force and contributes in the growth of other sectors of the personal narrative economy. During 2012-13, agriculture sector exhibited a growth of 3.3 percent on the back of positive growth in emily dickinson transcendentalism agriculture related sub sectors, Crops grew at 3.2 percent. Agriculture , Cotton , Crops 1786 Words | 7 Pages.
Compare and contrast the personal speech Aztec civilization and the Mayan civilization. The Aztecs civilization and the Mayan civilization where the dickinson most important civilizations from the new world that amazed many of the Europeans . Narrative! that came to conquer this wonderful rich land. The Europeans where amazed with the Aztec and Mayan culture, their ways of life, their geographical surroundings and their technology. Dickinson Transcendentalism! The Europeans and has Evolved During the 20th historians today find that the Aztecs and the Mayans where similar in some ways of life like their culture, their technology, their religious events and at the. Aztec , Human sacrifice , Maya civilization 2470 Words | 7 Pages. Emily Dickinson Transcendentalism! ? Aztec VS Rome Throughout our worlds history many astounding civilizations have come and gone, they have left their footprints in history . Speech! with artifacts and dickinson ruins all over the world. Though there are countless civilizations with many differences, it is surprising to know that they also have a fair share of similarities in religion, agriculture and personal warfare!
Sit back and emily visualize in your mind a very swampy area in a valley with roads and floating gardens, then visualize a river valley, with vineyards. Ancient Rome , Aztec , Aztec religion 1188 Words | 5 Pages. The Rise and Fall of Aztec Civilization. Essay Has Evolved During Century! The Rise, Fall and Contributions of the dickinson transcendentalism Aztec Civilization Hist 2111-213 20 October, 2011 1 Aztecs were one of the most . advanced civilizations in America and on How During the 20th were the emily dickinson masters of their world. That world was the area that scholars today call Mesoamerica, a region that stretches from Essay on How Liberism the 20th north central Mexico southward into Central America (The Aztecs 6). Their name is derived from the word Azteca which comes from Aztlan (White Land) believed to be today the north-west of region of Mexico. Dickinson Transcendentalism! They. Aztec , Aztec religion , Hernan Cortes 2671 Words | 7 Pages. The Aztecs: the Lost People of Mesoamerica.
Throughout history we find many different kingdoms, civilizations and peoples and each of them are unique in their own way. By considering the for fathers varying . degrees of sophistication, different lifestyles , religion and agriculture individuals can examine these peoples and come to understand their way of life and emily dickinson transcendentalism what aspects of their lifestyles made them so different . In an era of for fathers conquest and exploring the new world, Christopher Columbus discovered a land of promise and emily transcendentalism opportunity, riches and resources. For Fathers! Aztec , Aztec religion , Hernan Cortes 1846 Words | 5 Pages. Aztecs: Dominating Mesoamerican History. Emily! Aztecs : Dominating Mesoamerican History The Aztecs dominated Mesoamerica from personal narrative speech around 1325 until the conquest of the Spaniards . around 1520. (1) The Aztecs ruled with brutal force and human sacrifice was very important to continue pleasing the emily dickinson transcendentalism gods.
They shared similar gods and symbolism with other Mesoamerican civilizations such as the army serpent deity, the emily dickinson Jaguar and the Sun god, and believed themselves to be the heirs of the great warriors of the Toltecs. (1) Their temples and monuments show strong. Aztec , Human sacrifice , Mesoamerica 1582 Words | 5 Pages. Blood Part 2 Summary! Research Paper: Aztec Culture The Aztec culture dates all the way back to emily, the 13th century. Some say that a few . Aztec people still survive, although they are not exactly pure. Their culture was derived from South America. In this research paper the plan is to inform and explain to the teacher that the Aztec were an impressive group of people for their time period because they were so advanced in science, agriculture and were far more civilized than people from other regions had assumed during. Aztec , Aztec Triple Alliance , Hernan Cortes 2116 Words | 6 Pages. Luther Theses! Aztec Religion: the Foundation of a Civilization. The religion of the Aztec , including their beliefs, customs and religions, acted as a tremendous influence on their government, economy, and . Emily Dickinson! culture. Religion was the foundation for the infamous culture of the Aztec Civilization. Through ceremonies of sacrifice, and the infusion of cosmology into their religion, the Aztecs sculpted a culture unlike that of any other civilization, and left behind a legacy to marginal cost in economics, be studied and admired for generations to come. Religion ultimately shaped the unique civilization.
Aztec , Aztec religion , Human sacrifice 1462 Words | 4 Pages. The Aztecs and Eurocentric Scholarship. Emily Dickinson! In The Historical and Geographical Background of The Aztecs , V.W.Von Hagen contributes to matrix of power by silencing the past with the . ultimate goal of sustaining the never-ending Eurocentric reproduction of history. Von Hagen utilizes less sophisticated diction throughout the readings to poems for fathers, discredit the Aztecs and to influence the readers to assent to a one-sided part of history. Von Hagens biases are problematic because by employing this kind of language in a scholarly-based research he enables. Dickinson Transcendentalism! Aztec , Aztec religion , Hernan Cortes 1406 Words | 4 Pages. The Mayans, The Aztecs, And The Incas. From 250 A.D. to the late 1500's A.D., three advanced civilizations, the Mayans, the Aztecs , and Essay on How During the Incas controlled Central America and South . America. Each of them was different but all shared some of the same qualities.
They all were civilizations that had a daily life than revolved around religion. Their religions also required a lot of human sacrifices to dickinson, please the gods. Also, they all invented calendars that were surprisingly accurate compared to poems for fathers, the calendars today. One of the calendars was. Aztec , Human sacrifice , Maya civilization 951 Words | 3 Pages.
Aztec Religion Aztec religion is complex in its organization and mythology. The complexity is transcendentalism due to the mixture of its own . tribal perceptions of the supernatural, as well as the blending of other cultures the Aztecs came in contact. Because of human army this, there are many religious rites which must be performed in order to appease the many gods. Religious ceremonies were performed every twenty days and required dances, feasts, prayers, as well as torture and sacrifice. In addition to complicated ceremonies. Emily Dickinson! Aztec , Aztec calendar , Aztec mythology 1052 Words | 3 Pages. Impact of the army Spanish Conquest on the Aztecs. The Aztecs , part of dickinson transcendentalism modern day Mexico, were once the epitome of fine culture. They began their rule of personal southern and emily central Mexico during the . 14th century and practiced an incredibly wealthy lifestyle.
Nonetheless, this rule began to deteriorate when Spanish explorers disembarked at Tabasco and Vera Cruz on April 21st 1519. When the Spanish voyagers first arrived, they were welcomed warmly, respectfully and received Godlike treatment. Montezuma, the ruler at that time, believed that the Spanish. Aztec , Hernan Cortes , Mesoamerica 1434 Words | 4 Pages. press as the marginal in economics Aztecs (or the Mexica, as they usually called themselves). In the minds of the public at large, the Aztecs are . almost universally viewed as a cruel and sadistic people. Sophie D. Coe amp; Michael D. Coe (The True History of Chocolate). Emily Dickinson! It isnt denied that Europeans were being praised for personal their oh-so-advanced culture, while the Aztecs were considered barbaric even though they had such intellectual minds and rapidly growing technology. The start of the late Aztec period in modern-day. Aztec , Bernardino de Sahagun , History of Mexico 1076 Words | 3 Pages.
Aztec Ancient Civilizations Project. MUST CHANGE WORDING BEFORE ENTERING INTO PWP Ancient World Presentation Aztecs Keith Buckholz Brianna Kramer . Melanie Levine Spandana Muskula 80 points Students will use Google Docs for their research notes and share with their teacher to emily, monitor progress (20pts). Students must submit a works cited page, using MLA format (10pts). They must have a minimum of luther theses three different, reputable sources per group member. The presentation must use technology to transcendentalism, inform the audience (PowerPoint. Aztec , History of Mexico , Mesoamerica 1958 Words | 9 Pages. The Aztecs and the Spanish Conquest.
How can it be that the Aztecs , one of the marginal in economics greatest and strongest civilisations of its time, be defeated by only a few hundred men? The answers . to this question are many but the one we shall explore is that of the factors that gave the emily dickinson transcendentalism Spanish soldiers the advantage over the Aztecs . The main factor that led to marginal cost, the victory of the Spanish Conquerors was the Aztec religion. The Aztecs had many myths about emily transcendentalism, their gods however the Essay on How Liberism has Evolved During most important was the story about Quetzacoatl (ket-zahl-co-ah-tul), the. Aztec , Hernan Cortes , Human sacrifice 2105 Words | 3 Pages. fallacy and a great insult to the three great ancient cultures that ruled before their European conquest. The Aztecs , Incas, and Mayans were . three distinct groups of dickinson people that thrived in the Americas prior to personal, their discovery and all have a diversely rich background full of people, tradition, and culture. Emily Dickinson Transcendentalism! Recorded Aztecan history begins at army, the start of the twelfth century when the Aztec people first moved out in search of a new homeland.
In 1325 they founded their new home with the creation of. Aztec , Hernan Cortes , Maya civilization 868 Words | 3 Pages. The Aztecs What Should History Say. The Aztecs : What Should History Say? What should be most remembered about the ancient Aztec society?
The Aztecs . Emily Dickinson Transcendentalism! created a grand society in Tenochtitlan (present day Mexico City) from 1350 to 1519. Justification for the founding of a city in Central Mexico can be explained by Document 2, where the Spanish Friar Diego Duran speaks of for fathers a gods order for them to settle in a land where an eagle is perched upon a cactus. Emily! Although this Document provides the reason for settlement, all of the personal narrative information. Aztec , Aztec religion , Aztec society 1281 Words | 4 Pages. ? HISTORY OF INDIAN AGRICULTURE Early history Barley and wheat cultivationalong with the emily dickinson transcendentalism domestication of cattle, . primarily sheep and goatwas visible in Mehrgarh by 9000 BCE. Vedic period Post Maha Janapadas period (1500 BCE 200 CE) The Mauryan Empire (322185 BCE) categorised soils and Essay Liberism the 20th Century made meteorological observations for agricultural use. Early Common Era High Middle Ages (2001200 CE) Water storage systems were designed during this period. Kallanai, a dam. Agriculture , Food security , Green Revolution 684 Words | 3 Pages. Aztec Mayans in transcendentalism the History of Mexico. Mexican pre-conquest world consisted of several different civilization, the Maya and the Aztec being the two most prominent. The Maya and poems for fathers the . Aztec , while very similar, both dominated Mesoamerica at a certain time.
The Maya dominated from 600 B.C. to A.D. 900, the Aztecs ruled from 1345 to 1521. Emily Dickinson! These pre-conquest civilizations have developed political, economic, and personal social structures that will be compared. The Aztecs are considered Mesoamericans strongest civilization. The Mayas political rulers. Aztec , Human sacrifice , Maya civilization 982 Words | 3 Pages. Spanish Colonization and emily transcendentalism Destruction of the Aztecs. Essay #1: Spanish Colonization and Destruction of the Aztecs The Spanish influence in the Americas negatively impacted the . Aztec empire and other natives of the Americas until Spanish conquistadors ultimately conquered the native people. No other outside force could possibly have been as destructive to the Aztec empire as the Spanish settlement and colonization in the sixteenth century. Regardless of primary intentions, Hernan Cortes and his men slowly brought down Moctezuma and his army of.
Aztec , Colonialism , Hernan Cortes 855 Words | 3 Pages. Aztec Inca DBQ The Aztec and Inca were two very advanced cultural societies for cost being on emily dickinson of the early civilizations of . Human Resource! Central America. These Empires maintained a high level of cultural development due to their social, architectural, and religious aspects. Additional documents that would have aided the explanation of these cultures would be from a priest and his role was a significant part in the community as well as from an architect or constructor, to describe some of the obstacles they needed. Aztec , Bernal Diaz del Castillo , Codex Mendoza 1168 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Nanuatl Language By Grace L. The Aztecs were an extraordinarily developed people who spoke Nanautl. Nanautl was a language very much . like Spanish. Today in Mexico and America, many of their words live on in adapted forms. For example, the English word tomato was tomatl in Nanautl. This language was straightforward and very basic to understand, because unlike English, the fundamentals set for emily transcendentalism words were followed easily.
The Aztecs , an ancient civilization, learned to speak at a very young. Aztec , Language , Mesoamerica 344 Words | 2 Pages. ?Both the Aztecs and the Incas demonstrated outstanding cultural, intellectual, and human army religious developments in their societies. These Empires . maintained a high level of cultural development due to their social, architectural, and religious aspects. The social effects of the Aztec and dickinson transcendentalism Incan Empires clearly emphasized the amazing cultural development that occurred there. The Mendoza Codex (Document 1) is an example that shows the daily activities and customs of the Aztec society. Marginal! It shows the type. Aztec , Bernal Diaz del Castillo , Cusco 1165 Words | 3 Pages. The Traditional Aztec Way of Life. ?Lamira Herrera Anth 121 5/12/15 Question Set 10: Chapter 17-19 1. (p. 459-61) What was an Aztec calpulli (plural calpultin)? What role did the . calpulli play in the larger Aztec state? -Calpulli or calputin are small family units that owned land together; means Great House.
The calputin played a smaller role in the larger Aztecan state because they did not own the dickinson same land and food producing powers but were used for trade and collection. The Templo Mayor (p. 462) was the main pyramid in the ceremonial. Aztec , Mexico City 1703 Words | 7 Pages. Native Americans: Aztecs and on How Liberism has Evolved During the 20th Incas. Emily Transcendentalism! Two of the blood part 2 summary biggest and greatest civilization in the Americas were the Aztecs and Incas. These two civilization were both said to be conquered . by the Spanish, but it wasn't just the Spanish who conquered them. These two civilizations both fell from a combination of a weak government, lack of technology, new disease introduced by the invaders, and transcendentalism not being prepared for the invaders.
For many centuries the Aztec civilization revolved around a ideological, social, and political system in. Aztec , Civilizations , Inca Empire 1105 Words | 4 Pages. Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire. The people known as the Aztecs (who referred to themselves as the Mexica or Tenocha) originated from a place called Aztlan, somewhere in North . For Fathers! or North west Mexico. Dickinson! Sometime in the 12th century they embarked on a period of luther theses wander- ing and in the 13th century settled in the valley of central Mexico. About 1345 they founded the town of Tenochtitlan. The Aztecs of Tenochtitlan ruled by Montezuma II became the greatest power in Mexico. Emily Transcendentalism! The city of Tenochtitlan formed an alliance with the army neighboring.
Aztec , Hernan Cortes , Lake Texcoco 1035 Words | 3 Pages. Fuller 4th Period AP World History The Aztecs : What Should History Say? To begin with, the Aztecs were a great society that . formed during the years of dickinson transcendentalism 1350-1519; in its present day site, of what we know as Mexico City. The Aztecs believed in human sacrificing, which intern bought them to killing thousands of people each month. On How Has Evolved The 20th Century! With them human sacrificing, it made the emily Aztecs look barbaric and uncivilized. However history should say that the Aztecs had a very creative and organized empire. For Fathers! The. Aztec , Empire , Human sacrifice 582 Words | 2 Pages. students should take away after completing this task.
Big Ideas and Key Understandings Sometimes a superstition or belief can shield you from reality and dickinson . even cause serious danger. Synopsis The Lost City of the human Aztecs is dickinson about the demise of the 2 summary Aztec Empire and how Montezuma, the last Aztec emperor, reacted to emily transcendentalism, the arrival of the Spaniards at Liberism has Evolved During the 20th Century, Tenochtitlan in transcendentalism 1519. 2. Read entire main selection text, keeping in blood part mind the Big Ideas and emily Key Understandings. 3. Re-read the main selection text. Aztec , Hernan Cortes , Mesoamerica 1857 Words | 7 Pages. temple to the Aztec people as it was a form of connection between them and their most important Gods. The Templo Mayor is a significant . representative of Aztec priorities in religion, economics and politics and how the personal narrative three intermingle.
It was used to reinforce the power the Aztecs held over those who they had defeated but then it also reinforced the power their gods held over transcendentalism them. The two gods represented by the Templo Mayor, Tlaloc and Huitzilopochtil represented what the Aztecs valued most; agriculture. Aztec , Aztec mythology , Aztec religion 1785 Words | 8 Pages. Essay Liberism During! Aztec Tradition By Nicola Gunnis - 25178300 Principal beliefs concerning the origins of the emily universe: * The driving creation . Personal Narrative! beliefs of the Aztec religion begin with the dual god, Ometecuhtli/Omecihuatl. * This god created itself and it was both male and female, bad and emily dickinson good and, chaos and order. * The Aztecs believed that the contrasting aspects in the world would create balance and unite the origins of the world. * The god had four children and each of them represented. Aztec , Aztec religion , God 2087 Words | 6 Pages. ?Did you know that the Aztecs took their human sacrifice(act of marginal in economics offering something to a deity in propitiation) very seriously? Why do you think . the historians should emphasize on the Aztec sacrifice? Well, historians should emphasize(pay special attention to) on this topic because of the interesting things that are practiced during the sacrifice. The three ideas we will talk about is how often or why the Aztecs sacrifice,why are humans sacrificed,and the religious aspect. But here are their background.
Aztec , God , Human sacrifice 726 Words | 2 Pages. Comparison of the Aztec and emily dickinson transcendentalism Inca Empires. ?GOVERNMENT Difference: Incans had a totalitarian complex government whether as Aztecs had a decentralized government that focused on . expansion. ?? Significance: Since Aztecs never really had a lot of control over on How During the conquered people, many of them were eager to fight for Cortez against the Aztecs which helped lead to their decline. Emily Dickinson Transcendentalism! Incas on the other hand had a very complex empire with a lot of control over their people. So, since they had such an established rule, it made it MUCH harder and. Aztec , Aztec religion , Aztec Triple Alliance 1193 Words | 3 Pages. The Three Different Cultures in Aztec Empire.
Aztec Culture There were a variety of different cultures of people who were part of the human resource army Aztec empire. Social Classes of the . Aztec Empire: The Aztec society was organized into emily transcendentalism, tightly structured groups or classes. There were three main classes that formed Aztec society. The nobles, the intermediate class, and the commoners. Each class was divided further. At the top was the emperor who belonged to the noble class. His power came from control of the military and human was supported by Aztec religious. Aztec , Mesoamerica , Mesoamerican chronology 2158 Words | 6 Pages. Nature of Aztec and Incas Conquests by the Spanish. NOT fully explain the conquests of the Aztecs and Incas between 1519 and 1533.
Name : Kristeena Monteith Form : L6SS The . Aztec and transcendentalism Inca people of South America were conquered in the early 16th century by blood 2 summary the Spaniards led by Hernan Cortez and Francisco Pizarro, respectively. Emily Dickinson! The Technological Superiority of the Spaniards was a major advantage in their quests to conquer these groups but it does not fully explain the success of the conquests. The Aztecs have long been described as an personal narrative speech, advanced. Aztec , Civilizations , Hernan Cortes 1367 Words | 4 Pages. Short response paper on Aztecs in progress final. Diego Durans Credible Descriptions of the Aztec Civilization (Question # two) The Aztec civilization of Mesoamerica . rose to be a politically unified framework with immense power and wealth during the emily 15th C. Narrative Speech! The Aztec civilization began in 1325, when the Mexica semi-Nomad people migrated south to form Tenochtitlan, their capital city and present day Mexico City.
Through 100 years of aggressive military conquest, the Triple Alliance formed the transcendentalism Aztecs of Mesoamerica into a loosely structured. Aztec , Aztec religion , Diego Duran 945 Words | 4 Pages. Brochure: Aztec and Click Document Template. Essay On How Liberism Has Evolved The 20th Century! * * The Aztec culture began sometime in the 1200s, a few hundred years after the Mayan empire was taken down. * The culture started . in a small island in Lake Texcoco. The people built causeways to connect the island to the city lake shore. Emily Dickinson Transcendentalism! * Aztecs started defending their country in the early 1400s. Most of the on How has Evolved During time soldiers were victorious. They rarely were defeated. Aztec Government * Did you know ? [Future Solutions Now] Did you know ? [Street Address] Phone: [Phone. Aztec , Lake Texcoco , Mesoamerican chronology 575 Words | 3 Pages. from dickinson their homelands on large ships. They were claimed by French, English, or Dutch people and branded. (Document 9). Document 8 states the when the . Spaniards came to the Aztec civilization, they brought sicknesses that couldnt be cured by the Aztecs . Due to personal speech, not being able to have a cure to the diseases, many Aztecs died.
The Aztecs saw the Spaniards as invincible, document 8 states. There are any good documents that are used. Another useful document would be one of a man that traveled between different. Americas , Aztec , Christopher Columbus 891 Words | 3 Pages. suitable for certain crimes, and to sentence the perpetrators after a period of emily dickinson transcendentalism deliberation. For instance, Arawak chieftains often sentenced thieves to narrative, . Transcendentalism! death by human resource army impalement. Transcendentalism! *Tributes were paid to the cacique in gold and maize. Functions of the Aztec King: A Militaristic Leader * As High Priest, the emperor presided over religious ceremonies and built and maintained temples. On How Liberism During The 20th Century! The Emperor was also expected to emily dickinson, offer his own blood in Essay on How Liberism the 20th Century public religious ceremonies as an act of self sacrifice *. Aztec , Aztec calendar , Caribbean 750 Words | 3 Pages. Agriculture , also called farming or husbandry, is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms . for emily food, fiber, biofuel,drugs and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of poems for fathers sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science.
The history of agriculture dates back thousands. Agriculture , Crop rotation , Domestication 923 Words | 3 Pages. the emily transcendentalism various crops and animals 4. I observed the resource army farm in terms of how the land is used, the various farming methods employed by the farmers along with the . type of dickinson crops grown and the type of marginal cost animals reared. Data Analysis Agriculture is emily practiced mainly by small farmers in Jamaica. The farm visited in Rosemount, Linstead, St Catherine will be discussed under the following sub-headings: The farmer The location Size of Essay on How Liberism During the 20th farm Market Labour Crops grown and transcendentalism animals reared Climate . Agriculture , Crops , Harvest 1349 Words | 6 Pages. Violence in the Aztec Society Zachary A. Carter A.P. Human Army! World History The dismal drum of Huichilobos sounded again, accompanied by emily transcendentalism conches, . horns, and trumpet-like instruments.
It was a terrifying sound, and when we looked at the tall cue (temple-pyramid) from which it came we saw our comrades who had been captured in Cortes defeat being dragged up the steps to be sacrificed. When they had haled them up to in cold part 2 summary, a small platform in front of the shrine where they kept their accursed idols we saw them. Aztec , Human sacrifice , Human sacrifice in Aztec culture 1610 Words | 5 Pages. Cortes Conquers the Aztecs: Spanish Conquest or Indian Civil War. Tuesday/Thursday 9 AM Mid-Term Essay Question The Spanish conquests of Montezuma and emily dickinson the Aztecs were both a Spanish conquest as well as an . Indian civil war. The thing that ties them both together is the Conquistador Hernan Cortes. You could argue for both sides as to which played a more significant part in the fall of the Aztecs , however, I feel they both played an equal role in the defeat of the cost Aztecs and the fall of dickinson transcendentalism Tenochititlan to luther theses, the Spaniards. Dickinson! When Cortes first came to cost in economics, Mexico, he did not. Aztec , Hernan Cortes , La Noche Triste 781 Words | 3 Pages. is consumed by emily dickinson transcendentalism the farmers and their families. Where facilities like irrigation and electricity are available, farming has improved. Important cash crops . like sugarcane, oilseeds, cotton and jute are grown.
The subsistence agriculture has given way to commercial agriculture to some extent. Dry land farming is practised in areas where the rainfall is on How has Evolved During the 20th low and irrigation facilities are inadequate. Here, emphasis is laid on conservation of moisture, and on crops like jowar, bajra and transcendentalism pulses, which need. Agricultural economics , Agriculture , Crops 1688 Words | 4 Pages. Did the Expansion of the Aztec Empire Lead to Their Downfall? Did the for fathers Expansion of the Aztec Empire Lead to Their Downfall? The Aztec Indians originated from a place called Aztlan, . somewhere in north or northwest Mexico. At that time the Aztecs were a small, nomadic tribe living in the border territory on the margins of civilized Mesoamerica. (see map I) In the 13th century they settled in the valley of central Mexico. Emily Dickinson Transcendentalism! The Aztecs finally found refuge on army a small island in emily transcendentalism Lake Texcoco, where about 1345, they founded the town of Tenochtitlan.
The island. Aztec , Hernan Cortes , Lake Texcoco 1346 Words | 4 Pages.
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Emily Dickinson: Transcendentalist
netezza and resume Resume of Candidate: PEN177. Over 30 years as a DBA of which the last 20 years have been with NETEZZA and emily dickinson transcendentalism, DB2 LUW. Human Army. Has performed work in all phases of a project including: performance tuning at the application and database level. proof of concept with NETEZZA. migrating from DB2 to NETEZZA. installing and emily dickinson transcendentalism, configuring DB2 LUW (Unix and Windows) and DB2 (mainframe) experience with data warehousing and VLDB (Very Large Databases) UNIX ORACLE 8 Storage Structures.
SUMMARY OF TECHNICAL SKILLS. HARDWARE: IBM P-SERIES. STORAGE AREA NETWORK (SAN) SUN SOLARIS 8, 9 (KORN SHELL) OS/VS/MVS/XA, OS 390, Z/OS (PARALLEL SYSPLEX) ISPF DIALOG MANAGER. NETEZZA PUREDATA FOR ANALYTICS. DB2 LUW (VERSION 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.1, 10.5) DB2 LUW PURESCALE / PUREDATA FOR TRANSACTIONS. DB2 LUW ESE WITH DATABASE PARTITIONING (MPP)
DB2 Z/OS (VERSION 7 WITH DATA SHARING) ORACLE 8 (ACADEMIC) DATA MODELLING TOOLS: Infosphere Data Architect. BACHMAN FOR DB2. DATA MODELING TECHNIQUES: THIRD NORMAL FORM (Entity Relationship), STAR and SNOWFLAKE schemas (DIMENSIONAL MODELING)
Subject Matter Expert. Advisor / SME/ DBA. DB2 MPP Data Warehouse. University of Ottawa 2011 2 months DB2 Migration Expert. MPP Data Base Architect MPP Performance Expert. Data Propagator expert. Plan and install DB2 PureScale. Make recommendations for server architecture (CPUs, memory, disk, network) of Members and Caching Facility. Work with UNIX administrators on configuration of CPU, disks, file systems, memory.
Create cluster file systems from part raw disks for dickinson transcendentalism database and logs. Supported / mentored / advised CBSA team on Essay on How Liberism the 20th, DB2 Pure Scale. Perform high availability / failover tests. Performance testing, monitoring and tuning. Create and configure MDM database. Architecting CDC which is emily dickinson, used to propagate database changes from DB2 Pure Scale to marginal, the CBSA Data Warehouse. Planning and installation of Optim Performance Manager on emily transcendentalism, PureScale. Configure PureScale to do backups and log archiving using TSM.
Perform database restores and luther theses, recoveries on PureScale using TSM. Write and implement Linux database backup scripts for PureScale. Write and implement Linux database monitoring/alerting scripts for PureScale. Resolve performance issues. Created DB2 Pure Scale Installation Guide. DB2 10.5 FP 5 (Pure Scale) IBM Data Studio. IBM InfoSphere Optim Performance Manager. CDC (Change Data Capture) LINUX Redhat 6.5. COMPANY: La Capitale Insurance (Quebec, Quebec) verify if Netezza best practices are being followed.
work with architects and review the emily dickinson logical data model. review the physical data model and human army, make recommendations for dickinson improvement (denormalization, proper distribution of data across data slices, co- location and other techniques) implementation of Cluster Based Tables and Materialized Views. analysis Explain plans for problem SQL. analysis of zone maps. improve performance of queries (some queries went from execution time of several hours to seconds) review the entire ETL process and make recommendations for improvement. identify in-house DBA skills which were lacking or needed to be improved on. Red Hat Linux, IBM PureData, IBM Netezza. Netezza 6+1 S-Blades. Netezza Performance Server (NPS) 7.0.4, LINUX.
Netezza Performance Portal. Aginity Workbench for PureData System for Analytics. State of Connecticut. Provide DB2 support for a team of over 50 developers. Work with managers and architects on defining requirements and advising on personal narrative speech, best DB2 solutions / practices. Collaborate with LINUX administrators on defining server requirements.
Use Erwin to review and make changes to emily transcendentalism, the data model. Plan and human army, execute database schema changes. Upgrade DB2 10.1 to dickinson transcendentalism, 10.5 FP 5 with PureScale. Configure/optimize database manager, database and DB2 registry. Configuration of Buffer Pools. Create and configure instances (including DB2 Pure Scale instances) Design and implement tables and indexes. Design and implement foreign keys.
Design and Essay Liberism the 20th Century, implement Columnar Tables using DB2s BLU acceleration. Monitoring of emily dickinson transcendentalism instances and resource, databases for performance, locking and other issues. Analysis of access paths and tuning of SQL. Create scripts for backups (Full, Incremental and Delta), alerting and reports. Perform backups and recoveries at the database level and table space level.
Perform database restores including redirected restores from on-line backups. Reorgs / Runstats / Reorg Check / Data Movement using Load, db2move, ADMIN_COPY_SCHEMA. Review Stored Procedures and dickinson transcendentalism, make / implement recommendations to improve performance. Set up Work Load Manager to control locking issues and run-away queries. Advocate and implement best practices for statistics gathering, reorgs and cost in economics, backups.
Give training/courses to application developers on SQL performance tuning. Enforce best practices for database security. Configure Federated server and data sources (WRAPPER, MAPPING, NICKNAME, etc.) Investigated and emily dickinson, resolved DB2 server/database issues. DB2 10.1 and 10.5 (Pure Scale) IBM Data Studio. IBM InfoSphere Optim Performance Manager. Make recommendations for server architecture (CPUs, memory, disk, network) Create a plan for cost in economics the migration of a single partition database to a 16+1 partition database.
Work with UNIX administrators on emily dickinson, configuration of CPU, disks, file systems, memory. Determine which tables to replicate and which to resource, hash. Review data model and determine Hash Keys. Determine which tables are multi-partition and which are single-partition. Determine which single-partition tables to Replicate (based on queries with table joins) Determine Distribution Keys (Partition Key) for partitioned tables. Work with IBM on a proof of dickinson transcendentalism concept to establish/validate performance improvements of Netezza versus DB2 MPP. Establish and document functional differences between Netezza and DB2 MPP. Load tables using nzload and During Century, compare times with DB2 load. Run resource intensive queries on Netezza and compare times with DB2. Explaining of dickinson queries and review access plans.
Convert DB2 DDL to Netezza DDL. Creation of hundreds of for fathers tables and other Netezza objects. Design Netezza Distribution keys for emily transcendentalism DB2 single partition tables. Develop and on How During, test data migration scripts which pipe DB2 data and load this data on Netezza using nzload. Use the above scripts to transcendentalism, migrate the entire DB2 data warehouse to Netezza. Use nzadmin and nzhw to on How During Century, monitor / manage NZ SPUs/Disks. Design and dickinson transcendentalism, implementation of Netezza tables ensuring proper data distribution and Essay Liberism has Evolved During the 20th, co-location of data for queries. Design of table columns ensuring that Netezza Zone Maps are used. Design of Netezza Clustered Based Tables and Materialized views. Establish Referential Integrity to emily transcendentalism, improve query performance. Manage NZ objects using nzadmin.
Using nzload load NZ tables with massive amounts of human data and validate performance of newly designed / modified tables. Grooming of tables and generating statistics. Analysis of access paths and tuning of SQL / NZSQL and/or redesign tables. Code, test and troubleshoot procedures using NZSQL and LINUX scripting. Backup and restore of Netezza databases using nzbackup (Full, Cumulative, Differential, Schema Only) and nzrestore (entire database and dickinson transcendentalism, table. Using nz_migrate migrate database table(s) from army one NPS server to another. Configure ODBC/JDBC drivers.
Advocate and implement Best Practices for statistics gathering, reorgs and emily transcendentalism, backups. Advise, mentor and lead other DBAs in the group on Netezza technology. Work with Data Modelers and Enterprise Architect. Work with ETL Developers on changing strategy from ETL to ELT. Review data models for the Atomic Data Warehouse, Mining Mart and Reporting Mart and make recommendations for improvement.
Using Aginity Workbench create Netezza databases, make DDL changes. Using Aginity Workbench Explain SQL and make changes to the Netezza databases to improve performance. Encryption of cost data. Configure Federated server and emily, data sources (WRAPPER, MAPPING, NICKNAME, etc.) Upgrade DB2 9.5 to 9.7. Configure/optimize database manager, database and DB2 registry. Configuration of Buffer Pools. Create and configure instances. Create and configure databases.
Design of tables and indexes. Design and implement MQTs (Materialized Query Table) Design and blood, implement MDC (Multi-Dimension Clustering) tables. Monitoring production databases for performance and emily, other issues. Perform backups and recoveries at the database level and tablespace level. Red Hat Linux, IBM PureData, IBM Netezza. Netezza 6+1 S-Blades (96 CPUs, 96 SPUs, 96 FPGAs, 240 Data Slices, 64 Terabytes) Netezza Performance Server (NPS) 7.0.4, LINUX. Netezza Performance Portal. Aginity Workbench for PureData System for Analytics.
TSM (used for NZ backups and restores) IBM Data Studio. IBM Design Studio. IBM InfoSphere Data Architect. IBM InfoSphere Optim Performance Manager. Change Data Capture.
SPARC Enterprise M9000, 32 CPU. COMPANY: University of Ottawa (Ottawa, Ontario) review current environment and recommend server architecture on AIX. make recommendations for partitioning/parallelism. capacity planning at OS level (disk space, CPUs) design of file systems and maximizing of striping. instance and resource, database creation. database manager configuration. tablespace and buffer configuration. mentor team members and oversee activities. support team members for complex problem resolution. preparation of Federated objects. preparation of DB2 Audits.
DB2 monitoring and resolving performance issues. oversee activities pertaining to ongoing replication of data from mainframe to transcendentalism, AIX. preparation of resource backup and restore scripts. ENVIRONMENT: MVS, Z/OS, DB2 V9.1, DB2 Connect, Distributed Data Facility (DDF), AIX 5.3, DB2 V9.7, db2mon, db2top, nmon.
COMPANY: Aetna Insurance (Hartford, Connecticut) Review physical data models and make detailed recommendations for emily dickinson optimization. Review the DB2 setup at the OS level (file systems, striping, etc.) and identify problems and in cold blood, make recommendations for improvement. Make best practices recommendations for use of DB2 V9 features (table/range partitioning, row compression, self tuning memory, MQTs, MDCs, Statistical Views, etc.) Database performance tuning through database physical design, configurations and implementations of MQTs, MDCs, database and table. partitioning, indexing and related settings. SQL analysis and tuning of complex queries (includes rewriting the SQL and/or tuning the database) Resolve problems / issues. Performance monitoring of the servers and DB2. Database development using system development life cycle (SDLC) approach. Use of DB2 Advisors. Provide DB2 LUW related technical expertise to emily dickinson, the development team. Advise Data Architects on issues/questions.
Review the ETL and make recommendations for improvement. Design and create Tables, Table Spaces, Indexes, etc. Migration of DDL from Dev to Prod. Review the DB2 instance setup, make recommendations for narrative speech improvement and implement. Review the database configuration , make recommendations for improvement and implement.
Create/modify DB maintenance scripts. Create/modify DB Alert and Health scripts. ENVIRONMENT: The production environment consisted of the main data warehouse database (see below) and 3 Data Mart databases. DPF - 21 AIX P595 servers (114 CPUs, 1 Terabyte memory, 50 Terabyte disk) DB2 LUW V9.5 / V9.7 (with DPF - 114 DB partitions),
MDC, MQT, Range Partitioning, Statistical Views, Data Stage, Business Objects, db2mon, db2top, nmon, Workload Manager, IBM Data Studio, Infosphere Data Architect. COMPANY: Blue Cross Blue Shield - Wellmark (Des Moines, Iowa) analysts on the development of the emily Integrated Data Store. As a DB2 architect / DB2 performance Expert the following activities were performed for in cold blood this Insurance company in this Data Warehousing arena: Review the physical data model and make detailed recommendations for its optimization. Review the dickinson DB2 setup at the OS level (file systems, BCU, striping, etc.) and identify problems and make recommendations for improvement. Make best practices recommendations for use of DB2 V9 features (table/range partitioning, row compression, self tuning memory, MQTs, MDCs, Statistical Views, etc.) Database performance tuning through database physical design, configurations and implementations of narrative speech MQTs, MDCs, database and table. partitioning, indexing and related settings.
SQL analysis and tuning of dickinson complex queries which the in-house DBAs were unable to has Evolved During the 20th Century, tune (includes rewriting the dickinson transcendentalism SQL and/or tuning the database) Resolve problems / issues which the in-house DBAs were unable to. Performance monitoring of the server and DB2. Database development using system development life cycle (SDLC) approach. Use of luther theses DB2 Advisors. Recommend and configure Workload Manager (previously Query Patroller and emily, DB2 Governor) Provide DB2 LUW related technical expertise to the development team. Mentoring and cost in economics, leading of the corporate DBAs.
Advise Data Architects on issues/questions. Review the transcendentalism ETL and make recommendations for improvement. Review the narrative DB2 instance setup, make recommendations for emily transcendentalism improvement and implement. Review the database configuration , make recommendations for army improvement and implement. DB maintenance scripts determine what is need and recommend. Alert and Health scripts determine what is dickinson, need and for fathers, recommend.
DPF - 2 servers (40 CPUs, 80 GB memory - 10 DB partitions) M4000 - Coordinator/Catalog server (8 CPUs, 16 GB memory - 2 DB partitions) M5000 - Data Server (32 CPUs, 64 GB memory - 8 DB partitions) DB2 V9.5 (with DPF), MDC, MQT, Range Partitioning, Statistical Views, Data Stage, Business Objects, Solaris 10, Netbackup, db2mon, db2top, Workload Manager. IBM Data Studio. the Corporate DW Architect, Business Analyst and the DW production DBAs.
Review the physical data model (snowflake schema) of this 10 tera-byte database (largest fact table contained over 3 billion rows) already deployed. in production and make detailed recommendations for its optimization. Challenge IBM regarding its previous efforts with performance and set-up of DB2. Produce a high level architecture report for management outlying observations and emily dickinson, recommendations and on How has Evolved the 20th Century, best practices. Make recommendations for use of new DB2 V9 features (table/range partitioning, row compression, self tuning memory, MQTs, MDCs, etc.) Database performance tuning through database physical design, configurations and dickinson, implementations of MQTs, MDCs, database and table. partitioning, indexing and related settings. Review the narrative speech DBM and DB setup, the emily transcendentalism ETL (Informatica) processes and make/implement recommendations to improve performance and identify. SQL analysis and tuning (ad hoc queries were generated by Business Objects) Performance monitoring (CPU, disk I/O waits, locking, etc.) Installation of DB2 V9 on new servers and migration of DB2 V8 database to marginal in economics, V9. Installation of Fix Packs. Work with OS sysadmin and make recommendations for DB2 file systems and BCU set-up.
Creation and dickinson transcendentalism, configuration of luther theses instance and emily, database. Perform Backups and Restores. Database development using system development life cycle (SDLC) approach. Use of luther theses DB2 Advisors. Use of Query Patroller and DB2 Governor. Review the production environment and make recommendations to automate the emily transcendentalism maintenance and monitoring of DB2 and the warehouse. Provide DB2 LUW related technical expertise to human, the development team. Mentoring of emily dickinson transcendentalism Production DBAs.
The purpose of this project was to design and develop a combined fact table (snowflake schema) from the above warehouse which is to be queried by. hundreds of users using an OLAP tool (NovaView). The queries are ad hoc and random. In Cold 2 Summary. Using MQTs, MDCs and other DB2 features query response time. was improved from 100 to 1000 times compared to normal indexing. Many queries which took 1 hour to dickinson, run would now run in 3 seconds or less. The user. experience was to query the fact tables using an OLAP tool and having OLTP response times. Designed the ETL for personal the combined fact table including the refreshing of the MQTs. BCU MPP - 5 servers (20 CPUs - 17 DB partitions)
Eserver 326m, AMD64 DS4300/DS4800. 1 server used as the Admin. -Catalog node and the other 4 servers as database partition nodes. DB2 LUW V8 (with DPF) V9 (with DPF) DB2 Query Patroller, DB2 Governor. DB2 Data Warehouse Edition (DB2 DWE) Version 9.1.1.
Linux (Redhat), Netbackup. This 5-terabyte data warehouse / data mart will contain 5 years of operational data. It consisted of 325 tables. Emily Dickinson Transcendentalism. The largest table was 1.8 billion rows - 500. plan and install DB2 ESE. plan, install, configure and for fathers, administer DB2 Query Patroller.
plan and emily, install DB2 Fix Packs. convert non-partitioned instances to partitioned (Dev and Pre-Prod) and create a partitioned instance in narrative speech, Prod. configure / tune instances for emily dickinson best performance (Sort Heap, FCM Buffers, etc.) created partitioned databases in Dev, Pre-Prod and Prod. configure / tune databases for poems best performance (TSM, Logs, Buffer pools, IO Servers, etc.) work with the emily dickinson transcendentalism UNIX administrator to design file systems which will maximize striping of Table Spaces. make use of the DB2 Configuration Advisor and the DB2 Design Advisor. create SMS and DMS table spaces (Regular, System Temp and User Temp) make recommendations for partitioning of narrative speech tables, MDC (Multi-Dimensional Clustering) tables and Replicated MQTs (Materialized Query Table) perform SQL reviews, run Explains and make recommendations.
performance monitoring and emily dickinson, tuning using VMSTAT, IOSTAT, TOPAS, snapshot monitor and the event monitor. perform online and offline database and table space backups (Full, Incremental and Delta) and write scripts for backups. restore multi-partitioned databases and luther theses, table spaces and emily transcendentalism, Roll Forward. perform re-directed restores of partitioned databases from one server to another. create/maintain UNIX scripts which do monitoring, alerts, etc. research, recommend and implement DB2 features which reduce maintenance costs and DB2 outage and improve performance. provided technical direction and support for the development team.
produce technical documentation in order to facilitate DBA maintenance. problem determination and resolution. work with the DBA team and architect to in cold blood part, develop best practices for instances, databases, backups, etc. mentoring of junior DBA's. provide on-call production support. Data Warehouse: 1 P570 with 8 CPUs (64-bit) each and 46.5 Gig of memory, Data Marts : 1 P570 with 4 CPUs (64-bit) each and 16 Gig of dickinson transcendentalism memory. AIX 5.2, DB2 8.2 (FixPak 14) 64 bit with Database Partitioning Feature (DPF), DB2 Data Warehouse Edition 9.1.1, DB2 Query Patroller. 2 instances / 2 databases.
Support on other Environments. Number of servers supported: 37. Number of instances supported: 40. Number of databases supported: 71. COMPANY: Canadian National Railway (Montreal, Quebec)
This 3-terabyte warehouse will contain 7 years of operational data when fully populated. design and implement MDC (Multi-Dimensional Clustering) tables. design and implement replicated MQTs (Materialized Query Table) created fact tables and dimension tables. creation and use of User Temp Tables. analysis and implementation and narrative, promotion of emily dickinson DDL across environments. implementation of User Defined Functions. implementation and tuning of in cold part stored procedures.
perform SQL reviews, run Explains, make and implement recommendations. performance monitoring and tuning using NMON, Quest Central and the event monitor. exporting/importing/loading of tables. perform backups and restores on single and multi-partitioned databases. create/maintain UNIX scripts which do exports, imports, reorgs, monitoring, backups, alerts, etc. design a strategy which will automatically roll off partitions of dickinson range-partitioned tables and implement the strategy using a stored procedure. problem determination and resolution. ENVIRONMENT: Production: 2 P570s with 8 CPUs (64-bit) each and 32 Gig of memory each. AIX 5.3, NMON, HADR, Data Propagator, Quest Central for DB2. DB2 8.2 (FixPak 11) 64 bit with Database Partitioning Feature (DPF) Development - 3 instances, 3 databases.
Unit and acceptance testing - 10 instances, 12 databases. Production - 6 instances, 6 databases. COMPANY: Royal Canadian Mounted Police - RCMP (Ottawa, Ontario) As a DBA, the cost in economics following activities were performed: create databases, bufferpools, tablespaces, tables, indexes, primary keys, foreign keys; using Explain examine access plans and tune SQL queries; unloading and loading of tables; provide production support; transfer of emily dickinson knowledge/training/mentoring in-house DBA's; provide guideance to developers regarding data base access issues. trouble-shoot and resolve performance issues; provide techincal guidance and cost in economics, support to the development team; resolve DB2 Connect issues; creation of emily transcendentalism data base objects; exporting and importing/loading of human army data. trouble-shoot and resolve performance issues; provide techincal guidance and emily dickinson, support to the development team; resolve DB2 Connect issues.
install DB2 Clients. ENVIRONMENT: IBM P-Series, Sun Fire (High Availability Cluster), AIX 5.2, Solaris 8, Solaris 9, DB2 LUW EEE 7, DB2 LUW ESE 8.1, Storage Area Network (SAN), Hummingbird Connectivity, PuTTY, Korn shell, Replication Center, Task Center, Control Center, Command Center, Configuration Assistant, Health Center, DB2 Connect, OMEGAMON XE, Tivoli Storage Manager,
MVS, Z/OS (Parallel Sysplex), DB2 V7 (Data Sharing), RC/Query, RC/Migrator, RC/Update, Database Analyzer, Log Analyzer, DB2 Connect, Distributed Data Facility (DDF) COMPANY: Tech Data (Clearwater, Florida) install Siebel Tools, Siebel Database Server, Siebel Client, Siebel Patches; perform Siebel Repository Migration (Imprep/Exprep) across development and production environments; perform a study on the current DB2 production environment and narrative speech, make recommendations to dickinson transcendentalism, improve performance; using Snapshot, Event Monitor and Quest Central monitor SQL and data base objects for performance and locking issues; monitor CPU utilization, memory use, disks I/O rates, etc; monitor and manage table space growth; SQL and Explain Plan analysis and narrative speech, tuning and index design (query response time was decreased by dickinson up to 170 times); tuning of instance and database; create and execute (Korn Shell) scripts to monitor DB2 and produce database metrics (ex. transaction response times); problem determination and resolution; perform backups, reorgs, runstats, recoveries; exporting and loading of tables; gave DB2 training, presentations, mentoring and support to personal, internal DBA group (5 DBAs); advise and provide guidance to management on best practices. ENVIRONMENT: IBM pSeries AIX, Korn shell, Siebel, Quest Central, NMON, Foglight. COMPANY: Royal Canadian Mounted Police - RCMP (Ottawa, Ontario)
Canadian Police Information System. Availability (Hot Standby Failover) on emily dickinson transcendentalism, Sun Clusters; install DB2 LUW ESE binaries on each node; install Fix Packs; instance creation and database creation on global shared disks; configure and setup Tivoli Storage Manager (TSM) and enable DB2 to use TSM for archiving of logs and for backups and recovery of databases; migration of databases, tables, indexes, etc. from marginal cost old servers to emily dickinson transcendentalism, new servers; install DB2 Clients on Windows work stations; upgrade the luther theses Development environment from DB2 LUW V7 to DB2 LUW V8.1; creating and droping instances; create admin server; Install and evaluate OMEGAMON XE; resolve Java application database performance issues; create databases, bufferpools, tablespaces, tables, indexes, primary keys, foreign keys; create, maintain and emily dickinson transcendentalism, execute scripts (Korn shell) for for fathers backup, reorg, runstats, etc; perform failover testing; using Snapshot, Event Monitor, Omegamon XE monitor applications and resolve performance and locking contention issues; using Explain examine access plans and emily dickinson, tune SQL queries; configure instances and databases for optimal performance; exporting and luther theses, loading of tables; configure and use Heath Center to monitor database objects; plan, install and configure DB2 Connect Enterprise Edition on various Unix servers; provide production support; transfer of knowledge/training/mentoring in-house DBA's; provide guideance to developers regarding data base access issues. Storage Area Network (SAN), Solaris 8, Solaris 9, AIX 5.2, Hummingbird Connectivity, PuTTY, Korn shell, Control-M, DB2 LUW EEE 7, DB2 LUW ESE 8.1, DB2 Connect,
Replication Center, Task Center, Control Center, Command Center, Configuration Assistant, Health Center, Tivoli Storage Manager. Data Warehouse / Data Mart. warehouse. The hardware used was essentially 4 P575s with 8 CPUs each to store the partitioned tables and a P520 which was used as the emily dickinson catalog.
partition and to human resource, store the non-partitioned tables. The Fast Communication Manager (FCM) took advantage of a 2 Gigabit Ethernet network to. communicate across the nodes. exporting of transcendentalism data; execution of queries (Query Patroller was used to manage concurrency); backups/restores using Tivoli Storage Manager; a fifth P575 was added increasing the number of partitions from 32 to personal speech, 40 and emily transcendentalism, scalability performance tests were made; failover testing using HACMP; implementation of Java Stored Procedures and testing of BRIO and marginal, Business Objects; Informatica was used to test ETL. ENVIRONMENT: IBM pSeries AIX 5.2, DB2 LUW ESE 8.2 with Data Partitioning, Tivoli Storage Manager.
establish DB2 LUW/DB2 bidirectional connectivity between AIX and remote servers; 3 tier setup of Data Propagator; register/subscribe tables, configure, stress test, monitor and troubleshoot Data Propagator; make recommendations on configuration of Data Propagator and DB2 LUW; space management, Runstats, Backups, Reorgs; configure instance and emily dickinson transcendentalism, data base for optimal performance; configure and use Heath Center to monitor database objects; transfer of knowledge/training of in-house DBA's. PuTTY, Korn shell, Replication Center, Task Center, Control Center, Command Center, Configuration Assistant, Health Center, COMPANY: CIGNA (Bloomfield, Connecticut) CIGNA HealthCare provides medical insurance coverage through managed care and indemnity programs to approximately 14.3 million people, dental. coverage to approximately 13 million and mental health coverage to approximately 14million.
The company employs some 30,000 professionals. database system consists of over human resource, 600 tables and transcendentalism, the largest table in production contains over 2 billion rows. using ERWIN convert the logical model to the physical model; design and document a clustering and partitioning strategy which would allow for maximum exploitation of parallelism and scalability; design partitioned and narrative speech, non-partitioned tables and indexes; using ERWIN complete object definitions and generate DDL; create and dickinson transcendentalism, maintain 8 test environments across 6 DB2 subsystems; perform database sizing and space management activities; set up and army, implement STORAGE GROUPS, TABLE SPACES, TABLES, INDEXES; granting of privileges; design and implement an image copy / recovery strategy for the warehouse; set up and emily, maintain procedures for backup and personal narrative speech, perform backups; perform recoveries of dickinson tables and rebuilding of indexes; performance monitoring using OMEGAMON and STROBE. tuning at the database and application level. creation and cost in economics, tuning of emily transcendentalism indexes; SQL tuning (using the cost EXPLAIN statement and the PLAN table analyze access paths and optimize queries); Tablespace and Index Reorgs; resolve contention and locking problems; resolve BMC load and other utility issues; resolve Data Propagator issues; benchmark performance and emily dickinson transcendentalism, functionality of BMC load utility versus IBM load; unloading / loading of tables; configure DB2 Connect; setup ODBC connectivity to the mainframe which enable queries to personal narrative speech, execute from the dickinson PC using Microsoft Access; develop DBA tools which accelerate the productivity and quality of DBA work; training, mentoring and leading other DBAs; provide technical support and mentoring for in cold part the development team; interfacing and communicating with the managers of the project; prepare DBA production release plans and coordinate with production DBA; keep a pulse on issues / problems arising from production and proactively seek / provide solutions which will prevent future occurrences; provide production support. ENVIRONMENT: IBM 3090 - OS 390. DB2 (version 7 with Data Sharing), SQL, SPUFI, DCLGEN, DB2 UTILITIES, BMC UTILITIES,
DB2 DATA PROPAGATOR, DB2 CANDLE DB/WORKBENCH, OMEGAMON II FOR DB2, STROBE, VSAM, FILE-AID, SMS, ODBC, MICROSOFT ACCESS. of Merck, the emily transcendentalism pharmaceutical giant). In Economics. The database has 16 tables with the emily dickinson largest one containing 2.5 billion rows. logical data modeling; physical modeling (design partitioned and non-partitioned tables, indexes, etc.) ; perform database sizing and space management activities; set up and implement STORAGE GROUPS, TABLE SPACES, TABLES, INDEXES for the test and production environments; plan and execute initial loads for the test and production environments; wrote a DB2 COBOL program which was used to determine which partition to Essay the 20th, load during the production bi-weekly auto-loads; using the EXPLAIN statement and the PLAN table analyze access paths and optimize queries; plan and set up procedures for backup an recovery; prepare and emily, execute the following utilities: LOAD, REORG, IMAGE COPY, QUIESCE, RECOVER, RUNSTATS, MODIFY, etc.; support members of the team for all database and SQL related problems; verify all SQL access paths before the final move of the application to production; granting of marginal cost in economics privileges to various DB2 groups; provide production support. ENVIRONMENT: IBM 3090 - OS 390. DB2 (version 6), SQL, SPUFI, DCLGEN, DB2 UTILITIES, BMC UTILITIES,
OMEGAMON II FOR DB2, RACF, TSO/ISPF, VSAM, FILE-AID, FILE-AID FOR DB2. ARCHIMEDES DATA WAREHOUSE. consistent reporting for transcendentalism internal and external customers. This system was developed in poems, DB2 LUW version 6 (Universal Database EEE). Dickinson. It consisted of 28. Solaris processors and 4 database partitions. It made use of DB2 LUWs Inter and Intra partitioning and query parallelism. The tables in this system.
consisted of poems for fathers several hundred million rows each. As a DBA for this project the following activities were performed: determine causes for performance degradation and emily dickinson, outline and implement a plan which would resolve these problems. create and configure databases. configuring of log files. create SMS and DMS table spaces. prepare, execute and schedule scripts which perform RUNSTATS and human, REORGs of emily tables.
prepare and luther theses, execute scripts to dickinson transcendentalism, IMPORT, EXPORT and LOAD tables. copy tables from one database to resource, another. analyze system configuration parameters (buffer pools, locking, etc.) and make recommendations; using the EVENT MONITOR and the SNAPSHOT MONITOR determine causes for performance issues; using VISUAL EXPLAIN determine the access paths for problem SQL; tune SQL by reducing joins, eliminating table space scans and making better use of dickinson transcendentalism indexes; add / modify indexes and implement online index reorganizations in marginal in economics, order to maximize performance; prepare, execute and schedule scripts which perform online and emily, offline BACKUPs of table spaces and databases; RESTORE and ROLL-FORWARD of table spaces and databases. using the luther theses Client Configuration Assistant, enable data manipulation of the tables via Microsoft ACCESS. ENVIRONMENT: UNIX (SUN SOLARIS), WINDOWS NT,
UNIVERSAL DATABASE (DB2 LUW) EEE, SQL, ERWIN, TCP/IP. data on the mainframe via DB2 CONNECT. This client-server system is composed of 100 DB2 tables. Emily Dickinson Transcendentalism. The data is accessed by 150 users from Montreal, Quebec city and Three-Rivers. following activities were performed: set up and implement STORAGE GROUPS, DATABASES, TABLE SPACES, TABLES, INDEXES, VIEWS for various test environments, a performance.
environment, a training environment and the production environment; using OMEGAMON, monitor and resolve database performance and in cold blood part, contention problems; using the EXPLAIN statement and the PLAN table analyze access paths and emily transcendentalism, optimize SQL; migration of databases from one environment to for fathers, another; perform database sizing and space management activities; plan and set up procedures for backup and emily, recovery; plan and for fathers, participate in emily transcendentalism, disaster / recovery simulations; prepare and execute the in cold part 2 summary following utilities: LOAD, REORG, IMAGE COPY, QUIESCE, RECOVER, RUNSTATS, MODIFY, etc.; binding of PLANS and emily dickinson transcendentalism, PACKAGES on PCs and the mainframe; set up procedures and standards for binding of PLANS and PACKAGES; define STORED PROCEDURES to the DB2 sub-systems; set the DB2 Communication database to verify come from checking of users from LUs (gateways); grant and revoke privileges to secondary authorization ids for STORAGE GROUPS, DATABASES, TABLESPACES,TABLES, PLANS, PACKAGES and. install the REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY and resource, analyze and resolve data integrity problems; support members of the dickinson transcendentalism team for luther theses all database and emily dickinson transcendentalism, SQL related problems; verify all SQL access paths before the Essay Liberism has Evolved the 20th final move of the application to production; provide production support; make and dickinson transcendentalism, follow up on luther theses, recommendations to emily dickinson, the system DBAs in New York relating to the definition of the DB2 subsystems (locking and idle time. out parameters, DB2 logs, stored procedures, etc.). ENVIRONMENT: WINDOWS NT, UNIVERSAL DATABASE (DB2 LUW), IBM 3090 - DB2, CLIENT-SERVER, DDF, SQL, SPUFI, QMF, DCLGEN, DB2 UTILITIES, DB2 COMMANDS,
OMEGAMON II FOR DB2, PLATINUM FOR DB2, TCP/IP, NETBIOS, SNA GATEWAY, VTAM, LU6.2, DB2 FOR WINDOWS, DB2 CONNECT, TOP SECRET, OS 390, TSO/ISPF, VSAM, FILE-AID. YEAR OF MANDATE: 1997 - 1998. using OMEGAMON, monitor and on How Liberism has Evolved During, resolve database performance and contention problems; using the emily dickinson transcendentalism EXPLAIN statement and the PLAN table analyze access paths and optimize SQL; estimate and manage space required for TABLE SPACES and INDEXES; plan and set up procedures for backup an speech recovery; prepare and execute JCL to LOAD, REORG, IMAGE COPY, QUIESCE, RECOVER, RUNSTATS, MODIFY, CHECK DATA, CHECK INDEX, etc.; grant and revoke privileges to secondary authorization ids for DATABASES, TABLESPACES, TABLES, PLANS; provide production support; support members of the team for dickinson transcendentalism all database and SQL related problems; give DB2 training to the in-house DBAs. ENVIRONMENT: IBM 3090 - PEOPLESOFT, CLIENT-SERVER, SQL, SPUFI, QMF, SQR, OMEGAMON II FOR DB2,
OS 390, TSO/ISPF, VSAM. YEAR OF MANDATE: 1996 - 1997. Database administration for 18 systems used by various development teams consisting of over 250 people. These DB2 systems consisted of over personal narrative speech, 500. implement changes to dickinson, environments across multiple platforms / multiple Database Management Systems; migration of army data across multiple DB2 subsystems; migration of emily dickinson transcendentalism data across multiple platforms / multiple Database Management Systems; creation of DATABASES, STORAGE GROUPS, TABLE SPACES, TABLES, INDEXES and VIEWS; creation of WORKLISTS using BMC CHANGE MANAGER; down-sizing of Tables; extraction and reloading of for fathers data; enforce referential integrity; reorganization and emily transcendentalism, image copies of TABLE SPACES; support development team. ENVIRONMENT: IBM 3090 - DB2, SQL, DB2I (SPUFI, DCLGEN, BIND, UTILITIES, ETC.), BMC CATALOG MANAGER,
BMC CHANGE MANAGER, DB2 FILE-AID / RDX, OS/MVS, TSO/ISPF, VSAM. COMPANY: BELL SYGMA (Montreal, Quebec) implemented DATABASES, TABLE SPACES, TABLES, INDEXES, VIEWS, etc.; estimate space required for army TABLE SPACES and INDEXES and create the VSAM clusters; prepared and executed procedures to LOAD, REORG, IMAGE COPY, RECOVER, etc.; implement and verify the REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY across the various Tables after they have been loaded; participated in emily, the analysis and luther theses, resolution of performance issues; develop tools which facilitate RECOVERY; supported a team of emily dickinson transcendentalism application programmers; trained and human, planned the emily dickinson transcendentalism work for another DBA. analyze and resolve database performance problems; support members of the part 2 summary team for all database related problems. resources. It was developed using VISUAL BASIC and emily transcendentalism, accesses via personal computers DB2 Tables on the mainframe. OS/MVS, TSO/ISPF, VSAM, DB2 BMC UTILITIES,
CANDLE DB2 WORKBENCH. YEAR OF MANDATE: 1996. define elements (attributes) define associative entities. establish primary keys. produce the entity-relationship diagram. define domains for elements. define foreign keys. add non-conceptual elements as required. define format of elements. establish volumes and frequencies.
review the Essay on How Liberism has Evolved During the 20th Century business processes and ensure model is transcendentalism, satisfactory. denormalize model (in lieu of processes) adjust primary keys. denormalize model (in lieu of performance) define Referential Integrity. various departments within the company. The objective of this new system is to integrate and automate management of expenses, advances, reimbursements and payroll deductions related to these expenses for all 20,000 individuals at Hydro-Quebec.
The system would eliminate approximately. 55 person-years of work per poems, year for the company. made adjustments to the conceptual data model; using the conceptual data model derived the logical data model; validated all on-line requirements and emily dickinson, consequently made adjustments to the logical data model; derived the relational model; defined TABLES for entities and human, relationships in dickinson transcendentalism, the conceptual data model; defined columns, primary and foreign keys thus establishing the resource referential integrity for the TABLES; defined TABLE SPACES and assigned the TABLES to dickinson, the TABLE SPACES; created INDEXES for human the TABLES. ENVIRONMENT: IBM 3090 - DB2, SQL, OS/MVS, TSO/ISPF, VSAM, derived a model on security based on the security offered by DB2; participated in the development of a software tool which derived the emily transcendentalism conceptual data model within BACHMAN (Information Engineering. methodology for DB2) using the conceptual data model within the DEVELOPPEUR (MERISE methodology); developed a software tool which derived the relational data model (DB2) within the DEVELOPPEUR using the relational data model within BACHMAN.
The following entities were derivable using this software engineering tool: performed quality assurance functions on databases produced by narrative other DBA's; provided technical DBA support to other divisions at HYDRO-QUEBEC; produced a software which estimates space requirements for databases and determines certain optimization parameters. ENVIRONMENT: IBM 3090 - BACHMAN, DB2, DB2/2, SQL, SPUFI, QMF, QUERY MANAGER, a Netezza - IBM PureData Resource, please email us at.
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Do coursework summative assessments predict clinical performance? A systematic review. ฉ The Author(s). 2017. Published: 16 February 2017. Two goals of summative assessment in health profession education programs are to emily ensure the robustness of high stakes decisions such as progression and licensing, and predict future performance. This systematic and critical review aims to investigate the ability of specific modes of summative assessment to predict the clinical performance of health profession education students. PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, ERIC and EMBASE databases were searched using key terms with articles collected subjected to dedicated inclusion criteria. Rigorous exclusion criteria were applied to Essay Liberism has Evolved Century ensure a consistent interpretation of summative assessment and clinical performance.
Data were extracted using a pre-determined format and papers were critically appraised by two independent reviewers using a modified Downs and Black checklist with level of dickinson transcendentalism, agreement between reviewers determined through a Kappa analysis. Of the 4783 studies retrieved from the for fathers, search strategy, 18 studies were included in the final review. Emily Transcendentalism! Twelve were from the luther theses, medical profession and there was one from each of physiotherapy, pharmacy, dietetics, speech pathology, dentistry and dental hygiene. Objective Structured Clinical Examinations featured in 15 papers, written assessments in four and problem based learning evaluations, case based learning evaluations and student portfolios each featured in one paper. Sixteen different measures of clinical performance were used. Dickinson Transcendentalism! Two papers were identified as poor quality and the remainder categorised as fair with an almost perfect (k = 0.852) level of in cold blood part, agreement between raters. Objective Structured Clinical Examination scores accounted for 1.439.7% of the variance in emily dickinson, student performance; multiple choice/extended matching questions and short answer written examinations accounted for 3.229.2%; problem based or case based learning evaluations accounted for 4.416.6%; and student portfolios accounted for 12.1%. Objective structured clinical examinations and written examinations consisting of multiple choice/extended matching questions and short answer questions do have significant relationships with the clinical performance of health professional students. However, caution should be applied if using these assessments as predictive measures for clinical performance due to personal a small body of evidence and large variations in the predictive strength of the relationships identified.
Based on the current evidence, the dickinson transcendentalism, Objective Structured Clinical Examination may be the most appropriate summative assessment for Liberism has Evolved the 20th Century educators to emily use to identify students that may be at risk of marginal cost, poor performance in a clinical workplace environment. Further research on emily dickinson this topic is narrative speech needed to improve the strength of the emily transcendentalism, predictive relationship. Health profession education programs require students to develop and demonstrate competence across diverse and complex domains of practice. The curriculums delivered across the medical, nursing and allied health professions vary in the attitudes, knowledge and personal narrative speech, skills required of emily, their graduates. Narrative Speech! However, there are many similarities in the domains of dickinson transcendentalism, competence required by the registration bodies of these professions. To be a licenced medical, nursing or allied health professional, graduates must demonstrate competence across domains of practice such as: professional and marginal, ethical behaviour, communication and interpersonal skills, knowledge, safety and quality, leadership and management, and collaborative practice [ 1 3 ]. Educators must ensure that only students meeting the required standards of competence become eligible for licensing [ 4 ].
As the domains of practice required by emily dickinson, the different health professions share similarities, so to Essay During the 20th Century do the assessment frameworks used by their education programs [ 5 ]. No single mode of assessment can adequately measure performance across all domains of practice, but a well-considered program of emily dickinson, assessment may [ 4 ]. Essay On How Liberism Has Evolved During The 20th! Formative assessment plays an important role in the promotion of dickinson, learning, but it is summative assessment that provides a final measure of student performance [ 6 , 7 ]. Summative assessment in health profession education has three main goals: (i) the promotion of Liberism has Evolved Century, future learning, (ii) to ensure that high-stakes decisions such as progression, graduation and emily dickinson transcendentalism, licensing are robust so the public is protected from incompetent practitioners, (iii) and to provide a basis for choosing applicants for on How Liberism the 20th Century advanced training [ 8 ]. To achieve the goals of providing robust evidence of dickinson, competence, and the identification of appropriateness for advance training, summative assessments scores must necessarily be predictive of students future performance. On How Has Evolved! However, there is emily limited evidence to support this assumption. A systematic review by Hamdy et al. [ 9 ] of predictors of future clinical performance in luther theses, medical students found OSCEs and pre-clinical grade point average (GPA) to emily dickinson be significant predictor variables for clinical performance, however the predictive relationships were limited. Additionally, a compilation and luther theses, review of correlative studies by Harfmann and transcendentalism, Zirwas [ 10 ] looked to answer whether performance in medical school could predict performance in blood part 2 summary, residency. In their review, medical student pre-clinical GPA scores were one of the indicators that correlated most strongly with performance on transcendentalism examinations in residency. While the reviews by Hamdy [ 9 ] and Harfmann and Zirwas [ 10 ] looked at a range of predictor variables, the only specific mode of summative assessment common to all health professions evaluated was the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and this was limited only to medical education programs. The reviews did not comment on other modes of summative assessment, nor did they explore beyond the medical profession. On this basis, the marginal cost, ability of a variety of modes of assessment to predict future clinical performance has yet to be investigated in detail.
The aim of this review was to critically appraise and discuss the findings of existing research investigating modes of summative assessment, and their ability to predict future clinical performance. Emily Dickinson! The review will encompass the breadth of health professional education programs and focus on modes of assessment eligible for use across all health profession programs. Systematic review databases and search terms. clinical performance OR. clinical practice OR. work* performance OR. summative assess* OR. objective structured clinical examination OR. practical exam* OR. practical assess* OR. written exam* OR.
written assess* OR. theory assess* OR. oral presentation OR. clinical exam* OR. clinical assess* OR. The paper reported on the relationship between assessment results and the future clinical performance of students in health professional programs; and. The paper was published in the English language; and. The paper was published after 1996. The year 1996 was chosen as a lower publishing limit in recognition of the progression of educational theory over time. This date allows for the capture of 20 years of literature following on from the seminal papers by on How During the 20th Century, Harden [ 11 ] regarding the development of the OSCE and dickinson transcendentalism, Millers framework for the assessment of clinical competence [ 12 ].
The independent variable was a formative assessment; Individual modes of summative assessment were not specified (e.g. Human! used overall GPA); The independent variable was a standardised assessment limited to use by a single health profession (e.g. National Board of Medical Examiners subject examinations); The independent variables were health profession education program admission criteria, applicant screening measures or entry measures; Clinical performance was not measured in either a clinical workplace setting or in a clinical examination conducted externally to the education program utilizing authentic or standardized patients; or. The paper was an abstract, review, dissertation or discussion. Preferred reporting items for transcendentalism systematic reviews and personal speech, meta-analyses (PRISMA) Critical appraisal of methodological quality.
Studies included in emily dickinson transcendentalism, this review were critically appraised using a modified Downs and Black checklist [ 13 ]. The Downs and Black checklist consists of During Century, 27 items used to appraise methodological quality. The checklist was originally devised to assess the methodological quality of health care interventions, however it was appropriate to use in this review as it provided a structured format for critically appraising the papers selected for review. The protocol contains five major categories for appraisal: reporting quality, external validity, internal validity - bias and confounding and statistical power. The original Downs and Black checklist is emily dickinson scored out of 32. All items excepting Items 5 and luther theses, 27 are scored on a two-point scale. Dickinson! A classification as yes is scored as 1 point and a classification of resource army, no or unable to determine is scored as 0 points. Item 5, which appraises the description of confounders is scored out of 2 points, with yes scoring 2 points, a partial description scoring 1 point and no scoring 0 points. Transcendentalism! Item 27 concerning the statistical power of the sample size was originally scored out of 5 points. For the purposes of poems, this review Item 27 was adjusted to be scored out of either 1 point where power is emily reported and 0 points where power was not reported.
As a result of these adjustments, the modified total possible score was 28. This modification has been previously applied and reported in marginal, the literature [ 14 ]. To allow for a quality grading of the dickinson, studies, the total score for each study was converted into poems, a percentage by dividing the dickinson, studys raw score by 28 and multiplying by 100. The total critical appraisal percentage was then categorised as either of good, fair or poor quality using the ranking described by J Kennelly [ 15 ]. When applied to 2 summary the modified Downs and emily transcendentalism, Black scoring Kennellys model categorises papers with critcal appraisal scores of 71% or greater as good quality, 54-70% as fair quality and 53% or less as poor quality. Each paper was individually rated by two assessors (RT and NM) with the level of agreement determined by a Kappa analysis conducted by for fathers, a third person (RO). Dickinson! Following the poems for fathers, Kappa analysis any discrepancies in scores between the two scoring authors (RT and NM) was settled by consensus. Where consensus could not be reached, the transcendentalism, raw scores were adjudicated by a third person (RO) to Essay During Century finalise the emily dickinson, Critical Appraisal Score (CAS). Data from poems, each paper included in emily dickinson transcendentalism, the review were extracted by Essay has Evolved During, a single author (RT) and confirmed by dickinson transcendentalism, the fellow authors. Data were assessed using a pre-determined format as follows: clinical education program, number of blood part, students, student year of study, summative assessments used, clinical setting in which performance was measured and statistics used to dickinson transcendentalism establish relationships. Where clinical performance measures were referenced, the references were retrieved and reviewed for evidence of validity or reliability. In the case of externally developed clinical performance measures the available literature was searched to determine if psychometric data had been published.
To allow for comparison across data, the square ( r 2 ) of each correlation (r) was calculated. Squaring the correlation gives the variance which measures the proportion of variability in one variable that is explained by the relationship with the other variable [ 16 ]. In this review, the variance describes the proportion of blood part 2 summary, variability in students clinical performance explained by summative assessment scores. The results of the transcendentalism, search are reported in Fig. 1 . After the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria 18 papers were retained for final analysis. Excluded papers and the reasons for their exclusion are listed in Additional file 1 . Summary of critical review papers. Author and Population.
Clinical Performance Measure ( CPM ) Evidence CPM has Validity or Reliability. Year 3 OSCE - Data Gathering , Documentation and Communication / Interpersonal Skills subsets. USMLE Step 2 CS - Data Gathering , Documentation Communication / Interpersonal skills subsets. First year of residency training environment not specified. Residency director ratings. Year 5 Written Examination 5 Essay and personal narrative speech, 5 SAQ. Year 6 Written Examination 100 EMQ and 10 SAQ.
Junior Doctor Assessment Tool ( JDAT ) Clinical rotations environment not specified. Clinical Education Grade Form. USMLE Step 2 CS Integrated Clinical Encounter ( ICE ) and Communication and emily transcendentalism, Interpersonal Skills ( CIS ) component. Year 2 MCQ Examination. Second semester case based learning evaluations. Third year clerkships. Clinical evaluation form. Central Region Dental Testing Service ( CRTDS ) CRTDS clinical licensure examination.
Third year clinical training environment not specified. Clinical productivity value combined score for successfully completed clinical procedures. Clinical Performance Examination. Internship Chonnam National University Hospital. Intern performance scores 5 - pt Likert scale.
7 week clinical placements environment not specified. Clinical teacher assessments with standardised rubric. 0 Tutorial process assessments. Year 3 Hospitals and community rehabilitation centers. Hong Kong University Clinical Forms. First year of residency training environment not specified. Residency program director overall evaluations 5 - pt Likert Scale. Written examinations ? 2 MCQ and in cold part, ?1 cumulative essay. First year of residency training environment not specified. Program director evaluation form ( PGY - 1 PD ) Year 4 Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences. Online evaluation form.
Hospitals 1 year after graduation. Senior doctor assessments 5 - pt Likert scale. 6 - week clinical practicum environment not specified. Physiotherapy Clinical Performance Instrument ( PT CPI ) Trainee internship year. Global rating instrument.
COMLEX - USA Level 2 - PE Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States Level 2-Performance Evaluation, CPM Clinical performance measure, CRDTS Central Region Dental Testing Service, OSCE Objective Structured Clinical Examination, SAQ short answer question, MCQ multiple choice question, EMQ extended matching question, PBL problem based learning, USMLE Step 2 CS United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills. The mode of coursework summative assessment investigated most commonly was the OSCE, with only dickinson transcendentalism, three papers not featuring an OSCE as a summative assessment [ 17 19 ]. Written examinations featured in four papers [ 19 22 ] and problem-based learning (PBL) evaluations [ 17 ], case-based learning evaluations [ 19 ] and part 2 summary, student portfolios [ 18 ] each featured in one paper. Measures of emily dickinson transcendentalism, clinical performance used in the medical programs were: the in economics, United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills (USMLE Step 2 CS) [ 23 , 24 ]; the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the emily dickinson transcendentalism, United States Level 2-Performance Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE) [ 25 ]; a Clinical Education Grade Form [ 26 ]; a standardised Clinical Evaluation Form [ 19 ]; intern performance scores [ 27 ]; senior doctor assessments [ 28 ]; the poems for fathers, Junior Doctor Assessment Tool (JDAT) [ 20 ]; a global rating instrument [ 21 ]; program director evaluations [ 22 ] and residency program director assessments [ 29 , 30 ]. A variety of clinical performance measures were used amongst the allied health programs: the Physiotherapy Clinical Performance Instrument (PT CPI) [ 31 ]; the National Dental Hygiene Examination (NDHE) [ 18 ]; the Hong Kong University (HKU) speech pathology clinical evaluation form and COMPASSฎ: Competency Based Assessment in dickinson transcendentalism, Speech Pathology [ 17 ]; a standardized dietetics clinical teacher evaluation rubric [ 32 ]; an luther theses online evaluation form of dickinson, pharmacy student performance [ 33 ] and a dental clinical productivity value [ 34 ]. Critical appraisal of methodological quality. Percentage scores based on the modified Downs and for fathers, Black [ 13 ] checklist ranged from dickinson transcendentalism, 29% [ 19 ] to blood part 2 summary 68% [ 21 ] with a mean percentage of dickinson transcendentalism, 56.15% (ฑ8.29%). The level of agreement between raters was considered as almost perfect [ 35 ] (k = 0.852). When graded against the criteria established by Kennelly [ 15 ], two papers were categorised as poor quality with a critical percentage scores of 29% [ 19 ] and resource, 50% [ 29 ], the remainder were categorized as fair quality (5468%). All of the studies included in the review were descriptive cohort studies. Analysis of the mean and standard deviations of the transcendentalism, categories of the modified Downs and Black checklist were conducted and showed the mean score achieved in the reporting category to be 5.94 points (ฑ1.35 points) out of a possible 11 points.
Most of the studies appraised had good external validity with a mean score in for fathers, this category of 2.5/3 points. The mean score in the internal validity bias category was 4.33 points (ฑ0.69 points) out of dickinson transcendentalism, a possible 7 points. Similarly, the mean score for the internal validity confounding category was 2.94 points (ฑ0.85 points) out of Essay Liberism During, a possible 6 points. Critical Review Findings. Author and dickinson, Population. Point biseral correlations. Significant ( p 0.01 ) correlation between pass / failure of human army, COMLEX - USA Level 2 - PE and OSCE : Physical examination subscore r = 0.40.
Significant ( p 0.05 ) correlations between the same subsets across tests . Significant ( p 0.01 ) correlations between residency director ratings and OSCE : Linear regression with Bonferroni adjustment. Significant correlations between the overall JDAT Score and the : Linear regression model found individual summative assessments did not demonstrate a significant influence on overall JDAT score ( p - values of emily, 0.141 0.859 ). Significant ( p 0.05 *; p 0.01 **) correlations between subscores of the Clinical Evaluation Grade Form and OSCE measures : Significant correlations between USMLE Step 2 CS components and narrative, OSCEs . Year 2 OSCE and Integrated Clinical Encounter Component r = 0.25. Year 2 OSCE and Communication and emily dickinson, Interpersonal Skills Component r = 0.26. Year 3 OSCE and Integrated Clinical Encounter Component r = 0.16. Year 3 OSCE and luther theses, Communication and Interpersonal Skills Component r = 0.27. Significant correlations between clinical evaluation form and : Case based learning reports. Significant ( p 0.05 ) correlation between Portfolio total score and CRDTS score. A prediction model using two factors predicted 13.9 % of the variance in Central Region Dental Service Testing scores. Significant ( p 0.001 ) correlation between OSCE and clinical productivity value.
Significant correlation between mean intern performance scores and OSCE. Significant correlation between mean intern performance and CPX subsets. Identified a ? coefficient of 0.66 ( p 0.0001 ) between individual OSCE scores and placement scores. treatment skills and transcendentalism, interpersonal skill subsets of the luther theses, HKU clinical form and. COMPASS ฎ generic competencies and emily dickinson transcendentalism, tutorial process r = 0.315 0.407 **
COMPASS ฎ overall occupational competency scores and. No significant correlations between OSCE and program director overall evaluations . Multiple linear regression. The OSCE was a significant predictor of PGY1 - PD Medical Expertise scores in a model containing multiple independent variables (? = 0.134 , p = 0.013 ). For Fathers! The written examination were not significant predictors of transcendentalism, PGY1 - PD scores , although approached statistical significance (? = 0.266 , p = 0.07 ). The OSCE was the only significant predictor of PGYI - PD Professionalism scores in a model containing multiple independent variables (? = 0.124 , p 0.026 ) Significant ( p 0.05 *; p 0.01 **) correlations between OSCEs and specific APPEs : acute care , ambulatory care , clinical specialty and community. Year 2 Fall OSCE and all four APPEs r = 0.13 * 0.14 * Year 2 Spring OSCE and personal, acute care APPE r = 0.12 * Year 3 Fall OSCE and : clinical specialty APPE r = 0.13 * No statistically significant results . OSCE showed trend of positive association with senior doctor assessments . No significant correlations between OSCE average score and Physiotherapy Clinical Performance Instrument average score . APPE Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences, CAP Critical appraisal percentage, COMLEX ?USA Level 2-PE Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States Level 2-Performance Evaluation, CPX clinical performance examination, HKU Hong Kong University, JDAT Junior Doctor Assessment Tool, OSCE objective structured clinical examination, PGY - 1 PD program director evaluation form, USMLE Step 2 CS United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills. Proportion of variability accounted for by the emily dickinson, relationship between summative assessment and clinical performance. OSCE measures and COMLEX - USA Level 2 - PE Pass or Failure. OSCE Physical Examination subscore. OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS Data Gathering.
OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS Documentation. OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS and Communication / Personal. OSCE total score and residency director ratings. Year 5 Written exam ( 5 modified essay questions + 5 SAQ ) and Essay has Evolved Century, JDAT overall score. Year 6 Written exam ( 100 EMQ + 10 SAQ ) and JDAT overall score. Year 4 OSCE and JDAT overall score.
Year 5 OSCE and JDAT overall score. OSCE measures and Clinical Evaluation Grade Form subscores. OSCE Total and Subscore 2. OSCE - Physical Examination score and Subscores 1 , 3 , 5. OSCE - SOAP Note Form score and Subscore 1 , 3. OSCE - SOAP Note Form score and transcendentalism, Subscores 2 , 5. Year 2 OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS ICE Component. Year 2 OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS CIS Component.
Year 3 OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS ICE Component. Year 3 OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS CIS Component. MCQ Written Examination and Clinical Evaluation Form. Case based learning measures and Clinical Evaluation Form. Case based learning group participation. Case based learning written reports. Portfolio and CRDTS clinical licensure examination. OSCE and Clinical Productivity Value. OSCE and Intern performance score. CPX clinical skills subset and intern performance score.
CPX patient - physician interaction subset and cost in economics, intern performance score. PBL Evaluation Reflective Journal and HKU clinical form. - Treatment skill subset. - Interpersonal skill subset. PBL Evaluation Tutorial Process and HKU clinical form. - Treatment skill subset. - Interpersonal skill subset. PBL Evaluation Tutorial Process and COMPASS ฎ generic competencies. PBL Evaluation Reflective Journal and COMPASS ฎ Occupational competencies overall score.
PBL Evaluation Tutorial Process and COMPASS ฎ Occupational competencies overall score. OSCE and Program director evaluations. McLaughlin et al. [ 33 ] Year 2 Fall OSCE and APPE online evaluations. Year 2 Spring OSCE and Acute Care APPE. - ambulatory care APPE. - clinical specialty APPE. OSCE and dickinson transcendentalism, Physiotherapy Clinical Performance Instrument. Reported as not significant.
OSCE and Global rating instrument. - clinical skills subscale. Written 1 ( 3 ? 3 h short and long essay questions ) and in cold, Global rating instrument. - clinical skills subscale. Written 2 ( 1 ? 3 h short essay and 2 ? 3 h EMQ ) and Global rating instrument. - clinical skills subscale. APPE advanced pharmacy practice experiences, CIS communication and Interpersonal Skills, COMLEX - USA Level 2 - PE Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States Level 2-Performance Evaluation, CPX Clinical Performance examination, CRDTS Central Region Dental Testing Service, EMQ Extended Matching Question, HKU Hong Kong University, ICE integrated clinical encounter; JDAT Junior Doctor Assessment Tool, MCQ multiple choice question, OSCE objective Structured Clinical Examination, PBL problem based learning, PT CPI physiotherapy clinical performance instrument, SAQ short answer question, USMLE Step 2 CS United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills. Objective structured clinical examination. Three of the studies (20%) investigating the predictive ability of the OSCE found no significant relationship [ 28 , 29 , 31 ]. OSCE did not predict physiotherapy student clinical performance on dickinson the PT CPI [ 31 ], or medical student performance measured by either program director evaluations [ 29 ] or senior doctor evaluations [ 28 ]. Personal! Nine of twelve studies in dickinson, the medical profession (75%) identified a significant positive relationship between medical student OSCE scores and clinical performance [ 19 27 , 30 ], with OSCE scores explaining between 1.9 and 39.7% of the variability in medical student clinical performance.
The OSCE had a significant correlation with pharmacy students clinical performance with variances of 1.46.3% [ 33 ]. Poems! OSCEs were also found to transcendentalism be a significant predictor of dental students clinical performance explaining 29.237.7% of the variability in luther theses, clinical productivity values [ 34 ]. A significant relationship was reported between pre-clinical OSCE scores and the clinical performance of dietetic students (? = 0.66; 95% CI 0.460.86; P 0.0001) [ 32 ]. Four of the studies evaluating medical student performance reported on the predictive ability of written examinations [ 19 22 ]. Two papers reported on emily transcendentalism written examinations containing long essay questions and in both cases they did not predict student clinical performance [ 21 , 22 ]. In all three relevant papers significant predictive relationships were found between written assessments consisting of human resource, multiple choice questions (MCQs), extended matching questions (EMQs) and short answer questions (SAQs), with variances of transcendentalism, 3.2, 7.3 and 29.2% [ 19 21 ]. One paper [ 18 ] reported on part the use of a portfolio assessment and found it predicted 7.3% of the emily transcendentalism, variability in dental hygiene student clinical performance. A PBL evaluation consisting of three assessment items predicted 5.916.6% of speech pathology student clinical performance on treatment skill and interpersonal skill subsets [ 17 ]. Case-based learning assessments in a medical program that measured group participation and quality of in cold, written reports explained 7.3 and dickinson, 4.8% of the variance students clinical performance respectively [ 19 ]. A prediction model for medical student clinical performance incorporating Year 4 and 5 OSCEs, Year 5 and 6 written examinations, scores from Year 6 clinical attachments and personal narrative speech, overall GPA identified that no individual summative assessment significantly influenced the emily dickinson transcendentalism, clinical performance score; the best overall predictor of clinical performance measured by Essay on How, the JDAT was overall GPA [ 20 ]. A second paper [ 21 ] combined the OSCE and dickinson, written examination results of medical students in a multiple regression model and found that the OSCE added significantly to the correlation with clinical performance scores. The written examination did not have a significant independent contribution.
The aim of this review was to critically appraise and discuss the findings of existing research investigating the personal speech, ability of summative assessments used within the non-clinical components of an academic curriculum to predict clinical performance across the breadth of health profession education. Eighteen studies that met inclusion and exclusion criteria were critically reviewed. The overall methodological quality of the literature that was investigated to inform this review was considered to be fair. None of the studies included in emily transcendentalism, the review were found to report on: (i) the principle confounders, (ii) the for fathers, power of the research and (iii) attempts to blind either participants or those measuring clinical performance. The studies that scored more highly clearly described the summative assessment being investigated and the main findings, as well as reported actual probability values and emily, the characteristics of students lost to follow up. The OSCE is well established in health education programs worldwide.
It is a mode of assessment specifically designed to poems for fathers provide a valid and transcendentalism, reliable measure of students clinical competence in a simulated environment [ 11 ]. Twelve of the 15 papers reviewed that reported on the relationships between OSCE scores and clinical performance demonstrated a significant positive relationship. In these instances, a significant relationship was present regardless of whether psychometric data was available for the clinical performance measure or not. Of note, the three studies [ 28 , 29 , 31 ] that did not identify a significant relationship had the smallest sample sizes of all the papers in the review. This may have affected the power of the studies and their ability to achieve statistical significance. This is supported by two [ 28 , 29 ] of the three papers which identified that there was a positive trend towards the OSCE predicting student performance and that statistical significance may have been reached with a larger sample size. Human Resource Army! The clinical performance measures used by studies included in this review assessed similar domains of competency to dickinson OSCEs, although in more complex and personal narrative, often less structured environments. OSCEs assess student performance at emily transcendentalism, the shows how level of Millers pyramid [ 36 ]; it is likely that the clinical performance measures also evaluate students at the shows how level as there is a strong argument that does can only in cold part 2 summary, be measured when the candidate is unaware of dickinson, being observed or assessed [ 37 ]. The similarities between both the domains of competence and the levels of performance measured provides some explanation for the consistent positive relationship reported between students OSCE scores and their future clinical performance. While this review suggests that a significant relationship exists between OSCE scores and clinical performance, there is resource army wide variation in the strength of the relationship. With the OSCE explaining between 1.9% [ 20 ] and 39.7% [ 21 ] of the variation in student clinical performance, the strength of the relationships may have been influenced by other factors that in dickinson transcendentalism, turn may vary between programs. For Fathers! One such factor is the structure of the emily dickinson transcendentalism, OSCE itself. In Economics! The wide variations in OSCE structure pose a challenge when comparing this measure between studies.
For example, the emily dickinson transcendentalism, dietetic OSCE had only poems for fathers, 3 stations [ 32 ] whereas the dentistry OSCE had 35 stations [ 34 ]. The OSCEs described in studies on medical students ranged from 5 [ 24 ] to 18 [ 21 ] stations. The papers with the two strongest predictive relationships between OSCE and student clinical performance described OSCEs with 18 ? 5 min stations [ 21 ] and emily transcendentalism, 35 ? 2 min stations [ 34 ] which suggests that longer OSCE assessments may be better predictors of performance. This finding is supported by a systematic review [ 38 ] of the reliability of the OSCE in medical education programs which identified that while scores on OSCEs are not always very reliable, better reliability was associated with a greater number of stations. This is attributed to a wider sampling of marginal cost in economics, cases across the increased number of stations. Unfortunately, not all papers meeting the criteria for review in this study reported on station structure and evaluation methodologies used within the OSCEs. This limited the emily, ability to further discuss the impact of OSCE structure on the predictive ability of the assessment but may explain the large differences in variance. The differences in in cold part 2 summary, the strength of the predictive relationships may also be explained by the difference in measures of clinical performance. This concern has been previously reported in emily, the literature with Hamdy et al. [ 9 ] noting that a limitation of poems for fathers, their systematic review was the lack of a widely-used measure of clinical performance. The findings of the present review also need to be considered in light of the limitations imposed by the variety of clinical performance measures used. A variance of 1.9% is of extremely limited predictive value given that OSCE performance would then explain less than 2% of students performance in the clinical workplace setting. Emily! However, a variance of 37.7% indicates a strong predictive relationship.
A predictive relationship of for fathers, this strength would be valuable for assisting to identify students at risk of poor performance in the clinical setting. On this basis, the transcendentalism, predictive relationship between OSCE scores and student clinical performance must be viewed with caution. However, these scores could be used by educators as a method of identifying students that may be at risk of luther theses, low performance in a clinical practice setting until a more robust measure is dickinson transcendentalism available. As only one paper was identified for each of the portfolio, case-based and problem-based learning assessments there is inadequate data to draw conclusions about these modes of assessment. Four papers in the review did investigate written assessments. Both papers investigating written assessment batteries containing long essay questions [ 21 , 22 ] found no significant correlation with clinical performance scores, however all four papers investigating written assessments consisting of EMQ, MCQ and SAQs did identify a significant positive relationship.
This supports literature advocating the personal, use of EMQs or MCQs in written examinations rather than essay questions [ 39 ]. Like the dickinson transcendentalism, findings for on How Liberism During the OSCE, there was a large difference in the strength of the transcendentalism, relationship between papers reviewed. Part! An EMQ/MCQ written assessment explained 29.2% [ 21 ] of the variation in students overall clinical performance measured by a global rating instrument, but only 3.2% [ 20 ] when clinical performance was measured by the JDAT. While other program factors other than the choice of clinical performance measure may also influence these relationships, there is a large difference in the ability of the MCE/EMQ written assessments to emily dickinson predict clinical performance. This highlights the need for research to occur where a standard measure of clinical performance is used to allow for comparison between studies. The findings of this review suggest that there is luther theses limited evidence to support the use of SMQ, MCQ and EMQ written assessments to predict students clinical performance and that the written examinations should be used as a predictive measure with caution.
In traditional curricula, summative assessments may have a gate-keeping role for progression on emily dickinson transcendentalism to clinical placement. However, even in curricula where students commence learning in luther theses, the clinical environment early in dickinson transcendentalism, their program there is still great merit in predicting future clinical performance. Human Army! The early identification of dickinson transcendentalism, students at risk of poor performance allows for Essay on How Liberism During the 20th Century targeted remediation prior to clinical experiences, as well as the emily, implementation of focused support whilst the student is embedded in the clinical environment. However, until further research adds to the body of evidence, the use of personal speech, summative assessments to predict student clinical performance should be approached with caution. If educators choose to use summative assessment results to attempt to predict clinical performance then this review suggests that the OSCE, which has a weak predictive value, may be the most appropriate choice. This review also implies that individual modes of summative assessment should not be the gatekeepers into emily dickinson, the clinical practice environment as there is insufficient evidence to base high-stakes decisions (such as a students ability to progress on to clinical placement) on the predictive ability of luther theses, these assessments.
In addition to emily the differences in the structure of summative assessments investigated and personal speech, clinical performance measures used that this review has already discussed, a potential limitation of the research reviewed is dickinson transcendentalism that only students who completed their program of study were included. Students who did not complete their program were typically excluded from data analysis. Cost In Economics! The resulting datasets would therefore not include students that had failed to meet minimum assessment standards in emily, either the non-clinical curriculum or in in cold blood part, clinical placements and thus been prevented from progressing. This creates a floor effect which could potentially skew the emily dickinson transcendentalism, reported correlations and reduce data sensitivity. Limitations of the present review include the use of the Downs and Black as a critical appraisal tool. Luther Theses! This tool was originally designed to dickinson transcendentalism appraise health intervention studies.
While it has enabled a standardised critique of the studies in on How Liberism has Evolved the 20th Century, this review, it may be that the papers have been appraised more harshly when applied to the same critique as an interventional study. Dickinson Transcendentalism! Considering this, all studies were appraised by the same tool and as such the methodological quality of papers could be appropriately compared. There was also a language bias in this review, as papers were limited to for fathers those published in the English language. There may be papers on this topic published in emily dickinson, languages other than English that have not been captured in this review. Future research on this topic should aim to marginal cost in economics recruit larger sample sizes to emily increase statistical power.
There should also be an emphasis on research within allied health student populations using measures of clinical performance that have been shown to be valid, reliable and are widely used. This approach would allow for luther theses a more rigorous comparison between programs and even professions to be conducted, aiding in dickinson, the generalisation of poems for fathers, findings across the allied health professions. The findings of dickinson, this review suggest that assessments used within an academic curriculum do have significant positive relationships with the clinical performance of personal speech, health professional students. To use these assessments as predictive measures caution is required due to a small body of emily dickinson transcendentalism, evidence and large variations in the predictive strength of the relationships identified. The OSCE may be the most appropriate choice at this time for educators planning to has Evolved During Century use summative assessment scores to identify students that may be at risk of poor performance in a clinical workplace environment. Further research, with larger sample sizes, is dickinson transcendentalism required to marginal cost determine the ability of summative assessments to transcendentalism predict the future clinical performance of health profession students particularly in allied health student populations. Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences. COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE: Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States Level 2 Performance Evaluation. Clinical performance examination.
Central Region Dental Testing Service. Extended matching question. Grade point average. Hong Kong University. Junior Doctor Assessment Tool. Multiple choice question. National Dental Hygiene Examination. Objective structured clinical examination. Physiotherapy Clinical Performance Instrument.
Short answer questions. Competency Based Assessment in part 2 summary, Speech Pathology. USMLE Step 2 CS: United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills. No funding was received. Availability of data and materials. All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article (and its Additional file 1 ).
All authors contributed to the conceptualisation and planning of the review and to the development of the search strategy. RT carried out the dickinson transcendentalism, systematic search, study selection, data extraction, critical appraisal and drafted the 2 summary, manuscript. NM carried out the critical appraisal and contributed to the drafting of the manuscript. RO performed the dickinson transcendentalism, kappa analysis and contributed to the drafting the manuscript. WH settled any disagreements in critical appraisal and blood part 2 summary, contributed to drafting the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. The authors declare they have no competing interests. Ethics approval and consent to participate. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in emily, any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to for fathers the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
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