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The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Essay

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Book Reports/All out info on Spain book report 3469. By: Danilo Ananias. Formal Name: Spanish State. Short Form: Spain. And Fall Of Islamic Spain Essay? Term for Citizens: Spaniard(s). Capital: Madrid. Population: 38.8 million in 1986.

Projected 40 million by 1990, 42 million by 2000. Rate of annual growth from 0.8 percent to Essay Language and Intercultural Communication, 1.2 percent from 1930s to and Fall Spain Essay, 1980s. Growth rates expected to level off or to decline slightly for remainder of twentieth century. Education and Literacy: Primary education (age six to fourteen) free and compulsory. Insufficient number of Essay of Alvin Ailey, state schools and teachers to meet this goal and rising enrollment. Gap filled by private schools subsidized by The Rise state. By early 1980s, 40 percent of all schools private. By 1965 country had achieved nearly universal enrollment in mary sheridan child primary grades. Secondary school attendance optional, but students deciding not to attend secondary school had to and Fall, attend vocational training until age sixteen. In 1985 estimated 89 percent of students did attend secondary school, and 26 percent attended university.

Adult population 94-97 percent literate in late 1980s. Development? Health: Uneven provision of health care. Maldistribution of health care resources of state's welfare system resulted in poor service in many areas, especially working-class neighborhoods of large cities. High ratio of doctors to inhabitants, but low ratio of nurses to inhabitants and relatively low public expenditures on health care compared with other West European countries. Tuberculosis, typhoid, and leprosy not eradicated. Infant mortality rate 10 per 1,000 in 1985.

Life expectancy seventy-four years for Spain, males and eighty for females in late 1980s. Reflection In The Merchant Shakespeare? Languages: Castilian Spanish official language and dominant in usage, especially in The Rise Spain Essay formal settings, but estimated one of four Spanish citizens had a different mother tongue. New 1978 Constitution allows for other languages to be co-official within respective autonomous communities. Catalan, Galician, Euskera (the Basque language), Valencian, and Majorcan had such status by 1988. Ethnic Groups: Spanish state encompassed numerous distinct ethnic and cultural minorities. New 1978 Constitution recognizes and guarantees autonomy of Ailey, nationalities and regions making up Spanish state, and seventeen autonomous communities existed in late 1980s. Major ethnic groups: Basques, Catalans, Galicians, Andalusians, Valencians, Asturians, Navarrese, and Aragonese. Also small number of Gypsies. Ethnonationalistic sentiment and commitment to the ethnic homeland varied among and The Rise Spain within ethnic communities.

Nationalist and separatist sentiment ran deepest among Basques. Religion: 99 percent nominally Roman Catholic. Other 1 percent mostly other Christian faiths. Small Jewish community. Essay Of Alvin Ailey? Society generally becoming more secular as society and economy became more modern and developed. Religious freedom guaranteed by 1978 Constitution, which formally disestablishes Roman Catholicism as official religion. But church still enjoyed somewhat privileged status. The Rise? Continuing government financial aid to church was contentious issue in Communication late 1980s.

Size: Peninsular Spain covers 492,503 square kilometers. Spanish territory also encompasses the Balearic Islands (Spanish, Islas Baleares) in The Rise Spain the Mediterranean Sea and the Canary Islands (Spanish, Canarias) in the Atlantic Ocean, as well as the city enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla in North Africa. Topography: Peninsular. landmass predominantly a vast highland plateau--the Meseta Central--surrounded and dissected by mountain ranges. Major lowland areas include narrow coastal plains, Andalusian Plain in southwest, and Ebro Basin in Essay and Intercultural Communication northeast.

Islands, especially Canary Islands, mountainous. Climate: Predominantly continental climate with hot, dry summers and rather harsh, cold winters. Wide diurnal and seasonal variations in The Rise and Fall Spain temperature and Essay Ailey low, irregular rainfall. And Fall Spain? Maritime climate prevails in northern part of country, characterized by relatively mild winters, warm but not hot summers, and generally abundant rainfall spread throughout year. Slight diurnal and seasonal variations in temperature. Mediterranean climate experienced from sheridan child milestones, Andalusian Plain along south and east coasts, characterized by irregular, inadequate rainfall, mostly in autumn and winter. Gross Domestic Product (GDP): US$340.1 billion in 1988 (US$8,702 per capita).

Economy stagnant during late 1970s and first half of the 1980s, but real gross domestic product (GDP--see Glossary) growth averaged 3.3 percent in 1986 and 5.5 percent in 1987, roughly double the West European rate. Agriculture: Made up about 5 percent of GDP in 1988 and employed about 15 percent of population. Very important producer of citrus fruits, olive oil, vegetables, and wine. Agricultural products made up more than 15 percent of country's exports. Productive and modern farming along southern and eastern coasts able to The Rise Spain Essay, meet foreign competition. Small antiquated farms of northwestern region threatened by Spain's membership in European Community (EC--see Glossary). What Influenced Mahatma Gandhi? Industry: Made up about 30 percent of The Rise and Fall Spain, GDP and saudi arabia rate employed about one-third of work force in late 1980s. Consisted of The Rise of Islamic Spain, unprofitable heavy industry segment, mainly government-owned, and profitable chemical and manufacturing components that accounted for most of Spain's exports. Services: Accounted for about half of GDP in 1988. Tourism vital to the economy, and it alone made up about a tenth of GDP.

In 1987 more than 50 million foreign tourists visited Spain. Imports: US$49.1 billion in 1987. Because of a surging economy, approximately one-fourth of this amount consisted of capital goods and Essay Ailey about one-fifth of The Rise and Fall of Islamic, consumer goods. Fuels made up approximately one-sixth. Exports: US$34.2 billion in 1987.

Raw materials, chemicals, and Essay of Alvin unfinished goods made up about one-third of this amount, as did non-food consumer goods, most notably cars and trucks. Agricultural products and wine supplied about one-sixth of total exports. Major Trade Partners: In 1987 63.8 percent of Spain's exports went to the EC, which it supplied Spain with 54.6 of The Rise and Fall Essay, its imports. France was single biggest buyer of Language and Intercultural Communication, Spanish exports, taking 18.9 percent in 1987. Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) most important exporter to Spain, supplying 16.1 percent that year. United States accounted, respectively, for and Fall Spain Essay, 8.3 and 8.1 of Spain's imports and exports. Balance of Payments: Spain without a positive merchandise balance since 1960. However, large earnings from tourism and remittances from lady macbeth sleepwalking, Spaniards working abroad guaranteed a positive current account balance up through 1987. General Economic Conditions: Strong growth since mid-1980s and controlled inflation made Spain's economy one of Western Europe's healthiest. Full membership in EC posed a threat for weaker sectors of the economy, both industrial and agricultural.

Spain had long had Western Europe's highest unemployment rate, more than 20 percent. Exchange Rate: In March 1988, 113.49 pesetas (see Glossary) to US$1. Fiscal year: Calendar year. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on of Islamic any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Saudi? Every paper is written from scratch based on your instructions and there is no plagiarism of The Rise of Islamic, any kind. Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions.

You will enjoy direct contact with the writer throughout the entire process and saudi rate will receive the paper by e-mail/download. The projects are never resold and will remain your unique property for a lifetime. The service is totally confidential and all client information is and Fall of Islamic Spain kept private. We guarantee that the paper will adequately meet your guidelines and be done by the deadline, otherwise we will give you your money back, if we fail (terms of service apply).

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nih r36 dissertation National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Drug Abuse Dissertation Research (R36) September 22, 2016 - This PAR has been reissued as PA-16-443. March 15, 2016 - Notice to Extend PAR-13-182. See Notice NOT-DA-16-019. The Rise And Fall Of Islamic Spain Essay? NOT-OD-16-004 - NIH AHRQ Announce Upcoming Changes to Essay of Alvin Ailey, Policies, Instructions and of Islamic Essay Forms for 2016 Grant Applications (November 18, 2015) NOT-OD-16-006 - Simplification of the Vertebrate Animals Section of NIH Grant Applications and Contract Proposals (November 18, 2015) NOT-OD-16-011 - Implementing Rigor and Transparency in NIH AHRQ Research Grant Applications (November 18, 2015) June 3, 2014 - Notice NOT-14-074 supersedes instructions in Section III.3 regarding applications that are essentially the same. August 21, 2013: Removed reference to ASSIST in section IV.3, since ASSIST is currently only available for multi-project applications.

May 30, 2013 (NOT-OD-13-074) - NIH to 1500's of Venice by William, Require Use of Updated Electronic Application Forms for Due Dates on or after September 25, 2013. Forms-C applications are required for due dates on or after September 25, 2013. April 12, 2013 - See Notice NOT-DA-13-023. Notice to Amend Section IV. Application and Submission Information. The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to invite applications for support of drug abuse doctoral dissertation research. Standard dates apply, by 5:00 PM local time of The Rise and Fall Spain Essay, applicant organization. Applicants are encouraged to apply early to allow adequate time to make any corrections to errors found in the application during the submission process by the due date. Standard AIDS dates apply, by sleepwalking scene 5:00 PM local time of applicant organization.

New Date September 8, 2016 per issuance of NOT-DA-16-019. (Original Expiration Date: May 8, 2016 ) Required Application Instructions. It is critical that applicants follow the instructions in the SF424 (RR) Application Guide, except where instructed to do otherwise (in this FOA or in a Notice from the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts ). Conformance to all requirements (both in the Application Guide and the FOA) is required and strictly enforced. Applicants must read and follow all application instructions in the Application Guide as well as any program-specific instructions noted in Section IV. When the program-specific instructions deviate from those in and Fall Essay the Application Guide, follow the program-specific instructions. Applications that do not comply with these instructions may be delayed or not accepted for review. The National Institute on Essay, Drug Abuse (NIDA) announces the availability of and Fall Spain, NIH Dissertation Award grants (R36) to support drug abuse doctoral dissertation research in NIDA areas of priority (http://www.drugabuse.gov/funding/funding-priorities ). Areas of focus include research on basic and clinical neuroscience and behavior, developmental trajectories, epidemiology, prevention, treatment, services, and/or women and sex/gender differences. Grant support is designed to and Intercultural Communication, encourage doctoral candidates from a variety of academic disciplines and programs to conduct research in these areas of interest to NIDA. It is hoped that this program will ultimately facilitate the entry of promising new investigators into the field of The Rise, drug abuse research and promote transdisciplinary collaborations. Accordingly the NIH continues to encourage institutions to diversify their student and faculty populations and thus to increase the participation of individuals currently underrepresented in the biomedical, behavioral, clinical and social sciences such as: individuals from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups, individuals with disabilities, and individuals from socially, culturally, economically, or educationally disadvantaged backgrounds that have inhibited their ability to pursue a career in health-related research. Essay On Biography Ailey? Institutions are encouraged to The Rise and Fall of Islamic, identify candidates who will increase diversity on a national or institutional basis.

The NIH is particularly interested in encouraging the recruitment and retention of the following classes of candidates: A. Individuals from Mahatma Essay, racial and ethnic groups that have been shown by The Rise and Fall of Islamic the National Science Foundation to be underrepresented in health-related sciences on a national basis (see data at http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/showpub.cfm?TopID=2SubID=27 and the most recent report on Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering). The following racial and ethnic groups have been shown to Reflection 1500's Merchant of Venice by William, be underrepresented in biomedical research: African Americans, Hispanic Americans, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders. In addition, it is recognized that underrepresentation can vary from setting to setting; individuals from racial or ethnic groups that can be convincingly demonstrated to be underrepresented by the grantee institution should be encouraged to participate in this program. B. Individuals with disabilities, who are defined as those with a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities. C. Individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds who are defined as: 1. Individuals who come from a family with an annual income below established low-income thresholds. These thresholds are based on The Rise of Islamic Spain, family size; published by the U.S. Unemployment Rate? Bureau of the Census; adjusted annually for The Rise changes in the Consumer Price Index; and adjusted by Essay Language and Intercultural Communication the Secretary for use in all health professions programs. The Secretary periodically publishes these income levels at of Islamic Essay HHS - Poverty Guidelines, Research, and of Alvin Ailey Measurement.

For individuals from low income backgrounds, the institution must be able to demonstrate that such participants have qualified for Federal disadvantaged assistance or they have received any of the following student loans: Health Professions Student Loans (HPSL), Loans for Disadvantaged Student Program, or they have received scholarships from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services under the Scholarship for Individuals with Exceptional Financial Need. 2. Individuals who come from a social, cultural, or educational environment such as that found in certain rural or inner-city environments that have demonstrably and recently directly inhibited the individual from The Rise Essay, obtaining the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary to develop and Gandhi Essay participate in a research career. Recruitment and retention of The Rise and Fall Essay, individuals from disadvantaged background (C1 and C2) are most applicable to high school and perhaps undergraduate candidates, but would be more difficult to justify for individuals beyond that level of achievement. Recent national data on doctorates earned by mary sheridan underrepresented minority U.S. citizens and permanent residents demonstrates a coninuing need to enhance diversity (http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/sed/2011/start.cfm ). NIDA supports more than 85 percent of the world's research on of Islamic Spain Essay, the health aspects of drug abuse and Influenced Essay addiction. Research supported by NIDA encompasses basic, behavioral, and applied sciences related to the underlying mechanisms and health effects of drugs of of Islamic Essay, abuse.

This FOA is to provide students with grant-in-aid support to perform drug abuse dissertation research on a topic related to the study of development, epidemiology, prevention, treatment, services, or women and sex/gender differences, and thereby increase the pool of What Influenced Essay, highly talented drug abuse scientists who conduct research in these areas. The descriptions below are examples of the research foci of this grant program and are provided to guide potential applicants to determine whether a given scientific topic may be appropriate for The Rise this initiative. Reflection Of Life In The 1500's Merchant Shakespeare? These descriptions are not intended to be comprehensive. In addition, given the and Fall of Islamic Essay, complexity of drug abuse research, it is permitted to conduct the proposed dissertation research in conjunction with an ongoing research study or to use extant data. Unemployment Rate? Research studies focused on HIV/AIDS and Health Disparities are encouraged.

Studies of multiple factors that influence drug use outcomes. That is, studies that examine genetic, neurological, biomedical, familial, behavioral, environmental, social, cultural, developmental, psychopathological, and psychological factors, their interactions, and mediating characteristics. Studies of the underlying physiological and psychosocial mechanisms associated with the transition from The Rise Spain, lower to higher levels of drug involvement and from higher levels of and Intercultural, drug involvement to dependence and addiction. Development and improvement of techniques for studying drug abuse, including enhancements in measurement, development of improved sampling procedures, and and Fall of Islamic refinement of analytic methods for mary sheridan milestones diverse populations across human development. Development of innovative approaches to identify both physical (ecological) and social environmental/contextual characteristics of local communities that influence drug use, emerging drug use patterns, and adverse drug-related outcomes. Delineation of the underlying dynamic causal mechanisms associated with drug use patterns and adverse drug-related outcomes by integrating individual, family, peer and community level factors. Mechanistic studies and research that address critical time points in development which may influece risk or resilience are of interest. Studies of and Fall Spain Essay, emerging trends (e.g., club drugs, illicit prescription drug abuse, tobacco and unemployment rate other smoke products, etc.), including studies that relate these trends to influences such as changes in social attitudes, new drugs of The Rise, abuse, new patterns of social interaction and social media, new technologies, new drug trafficking patterns, and similar macro-level changes. Research on drug use and lady macbeth sleepwalking drug-related consequences among racial/ethnic minority groups and other underserved populations. This includes studies that uncover the basis for racial/ethnic disparities in drug use and social, behavioral, and health outcomes related to drug use across development. Research to assess the impact of mental health interventions in childhood on Spain Essay, subsequent drug abuse.

Studies to assess the nature, scope, and consequences of drug-related trauma, violence and crime including violent and nonviolent crime, interpersonal violence, and substance abuse and other comorbid physical and mental health problems. Research to assess the impact of drug use on adverse behavioral, social, and health consequences (e.g., trauma, violence, educational attainment, HIV) as well as the role of saudi arabia rate, adverse consequences on and Fall of Islamic Spain, further drug involvement. Studies that apply insights from genetics, neurobiology, neurocognition, and macbeth sleepwalking physiology to inform prevention interventions and test the effects of prevention interventions. Studies on The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Essay, the efficacy and/or effectiveness of drug abuse prevention programs and strategies that are widely used but largely untested. Studies to develop and test the efficacy/effectiveness of interventions adapted for different contexts, for example health care settings and on Biography of Alvin Ailey schools.

Methodological research to improve the The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Essay, analysis of complex prevention trial dataófor example, statistical modeling for macbeth sleepwalking scene multi-level data, analysis of longitudinal data, and The Rise of Islamic Spain research examining complex interactions between qualitative and Essay Language Communication quantitative outcome data. Studies on The Rise and Fall Spain Essay, the adoption, implementation, and sustainability of evidence-based drug abuse prevention interventions, including analysis of of Alvin, process data to determine factors that account for quality of The Rise of Islamic Spain, implementation and outcomes, or program sustainability. Pilot drug abuse or drug-related HIV prevention studies designed to identify novel approaches to risk reduction, such as through new technologies or new modalities. Research aimed at developing improved alcohol and drug abuse prevention strategies for high risk populations such as subgroups with elevated rates of substance use, children of substance users, and underage drinkers. Behavioral and integrative treatment research at NIDA is mary sheridan development, guided by a stage model of therapy development.

For a detailed description of this model, as well as NIDA's therapy development and testing priorities, please see the Behavioral Therapies Development Program Announcements at: (https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PA-13-078.html; https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PA-13-077.html; https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/PA-files/PA-13-079.html). Examples of behavioral treatment research appropriate for this announcement include, but are not limited to The Rise and Fall of Islamic Essay, the following: Utilizing genetic, neurobiological, neuropsychological, behavioral, or other diagnostic data to tailor treatment to specific subgroups. Utilizing relevant research from the Communication, animal model literature (e.g., avoidance and impulsivity paradigms) to The Rise, develop or improve treatments/interventions. Utilizing relevant research from the Essay on Biography of Alvin, developmental (e.g., basic research on The Rise of Islamic Spain, familial and peer influences during adolescence) or social psychology (e.g., basic research on stereotyping) literatures to improve treatments. Stage I studies developing or adapting behavioral interventions that promote adherence to drug and Communication alcohol abuse pharmacotherapy. Adapting/modifying evidence-based treatments for use in non-traditional and community settings, into community-friendly formats (e.g., individual to group, briefer formats, less intensive delivery, computer-assisted delivery, etc.), and The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain evaluating their resulting potency. Developing sleep hygiene modules for incorporation into drug abuse treatment protocols for arabia drug abusers with insomnia. Developing and and Fall of Islamic assessing treatment provider training procedures for evidence-based treatments (e.g., computerizing training procedures; this can include initial training as well as supervision requirements). Developing interventions to promote adherence to medical treatment regimens in HIV+ drug users.

Computerizing, or partially computerizing evidence-based treatments for substance abuse disorders, as well as for HIV prevention interventions for individuals in drug abuse treatment. Developing interventions to reduce pain in individuals addicted to in the Merchant of Venice, prescription drugs, non-drug abusing populations, or individuals with chronic pain. Research involving secondary analyses of existing behavioral treatment research data sets to identify predictors, moderators, or mediators of treatment outcome, mechanisms of action of treatment, or secondary effects of treatment on participants in various contexts (e.g., peer group, school, work, family) or on participants' family members (e.g., children). Conducting secondary analysis of The Rise and Fall Essay, combined behavioral and pharmacological treatment clinical trials. Research on instrument development and/or psychometric analysis of tools for the clinical assessment of drug abuse, treatment efficacy, treatment fidelity, and HIV risk, or for constructs believed to be related to What Mahatma Gandhi Essay, mechanisms of action of behavioral treatment efficacy. Research to develop and and Fall of Islamic Spain test a therapy module to be added to an existing therapy to on Biography Ailey, address targeted issues (e.g., adding an HIV risk reduction module to a family therapy for The Rise of Islamic Essay drug-abusing adolescents).

Research to integrate innovative health technologies into new or existing behavioral and integrative treatments. Research testing a principle of behavior change among drug-abusers in treatment (e.g., by adding more frequent or multi-method assessments to an existing study in order to sheridan milestones, track behavior change over time). Development of improved medication compliance markers. Development of The Rise of Islamic, medications to Merchant by William, treat Substance Related Disorders, including medications for smoking cessation. Studies of the neurodevelopmental differences among adolescents in and Fall Spain the neurobiological processing of drug-related information, as well as differences in Reflection of Life 1500's in The Merchant of Venice by William Shakespeare general reward valuation, and reinforcement (both positive and negative) in laboratory decision-making or imaging paradigms relevant to treatment development. Studies of developmental cognitive processes of rewards, losses, social cues in decision-making, and value incentives that are relevant to treatment and integration of relevant developmental cognitive processes into the development of treatments.

Studies to inform our understanding of The Rise of Islamic Spain, how peer influence contributes to decision making processes in group treatment settings. Studies that use neuroimaging and other techniques to characterize specific neurobiological circuitry during adolescence to child, inform treatment development (e.g., to determine incentive-motivational circuitry that can be are involved in emotional regulation, drug seeking, addiction, reward, relapse, and maintenance of behavioral change). Studies to assess the impact of financing and organizational and managerial factors on access to and use, quality, efficiency, costs, and The Rise Spain Essay outcomes of prevention and treatment services. Research to measure the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and cost-benefits of drug abuse prevention and saudi rate treatment services. Drug abuse service delivery systems and models, such as continuity of care, development of therapeutic rapport, service linkages and integration models.

Studies that advance the adoption and implementation of evidence-based drug abuse prevention and The Rise and Fall Spain treatment interventions into service delivery systems (e.g., specialty care, primary care, criminal justice, child welfare). Drug abuse treatment and prevention services for Mahatma Gandhi HIV seropositive patients and for those at risk of HIV infection and other diseases that are a consequence of drug abuse. Studies focusing on management strategies (e.g., work team models, quality management) and business practices aimed at improving the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of and Fall of Islamic, drug abuse treatment and prevention services. Research focusing on the development or improvement of in the 1500's Merchant, research methods---including but not limited to study design, measurement, data collection, and analytic procedures---for studying the societal impact of drug abuse and/or the delivery, quality, outcomes, and economics of drug abuse prevention or treatment services. Through this dissertation award program, NIDA seeks to foster research on females (both humans and in animal models) and sex/gender differences in all areas of drug abuse research. From basic cellular and genetics research to The Rise and Fall of Islamic Essay, epidemiology, prevention, treatment, and services research, investigators are encouraged to explore the possible importance of sex/gender differences in their chosen area of study and to explore drug abuse issues specific to females. Examples of saudi, research areas include, but are not limited to the following: Sex/Gender differences in the basic behavioral, physiological, neurobiological and genetic mechanisms underlying drug abuse and addiction; and laboratory (both human and animal), clinical, and epidemiological studies of sex/gender differences in the determinants of initiation, progression, maintenance of drug use and Spain addiction, and Reflection of Life of Venice by William responsiveness to treatment. Laboratory (both human and animal), field, and clinical research aimed at: (1) identifying sex/gender differences in the consequences of of Islamic Essay, drug use, abuse, and addiction following acute use, chronic use, as well as residual effects following prolonged abstinence, and Language and Intercultural (2) examining drug-related consequences that are unique to females.

Clinical studies aimed at characterizing sex differences in the effects of drug exposure on of Islamic, the developing brain, or studies aimed at detecting sex differences in acute and Language and Intercultural chronic drug use effects (and abstinence effects) on the brains of children, adolescents and adults. The application of sex/gender-specific theories and and Fall Essay empirical research on the origins, pathways, and risk and mary sheridan child protective factors related to drug use, progression/transition, and maintenance, to the design, development, and testing of gender-sensitive prevention and treatment strategies and and Fall Essay interventions to determine effectiveness and efficacy. The development and testing of theoretically-based drug treatment approaches (including behavioral treatment and sheridan pharmacotherapies) that address sex/gender-specific topics related to the effective and efficient delivery of drug abuse treatment services. The development and evaluation of and Fall Spain, sex/gender-specific interventions directed at preventing HIV infection and treating HIV/AIDS among drug using populations. For additional background and research areas of interest dealing with women and sex/gender differences, see https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PA-11-047.html. Questions on the relevance of a particular research topic to NIDA's scientific mission and mary sheridan child development other questions about this FOA should be addressed to the program contact listed under INQUIRIES. Potential applicants are strongly encouraged to discuss their application with the appropriate program contact. HIV/AIDS Counseling and and Fall of Islamic Testing Policy for the National Institute on Drug Abuse: In light of Essay Language Communication, recent significant advances in rapid testing for HIV and in The Rise Essay effective treatments for HIV, NIDA has revised its 2001 policy on HIV counseling and testing. NIDA-funded researchers are strongly encouraged to provide and/or refer research subjects to HIV risk reduction education and education about the benefits of HIV treatment, counseling and Essay Language and Intercultural testing, referral to treatment, and The Rise and Fall Spain Essay other appropriate interventions to prevent acquisition and transmission of HIV.

This policy applies to all NIDA funded research conducted domestically or internationally. For more information see https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-DA-07-013.html. National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse Recommended Guidelines for the Administration of Drugs to Human Subjects: The National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse (NACDA) recognizes the importance of research involving the What Gandhi, administration of drugs with abuse potential, and dependence or addiction liability, to human subjects. And Fall Spain Essay? Potential applicants are encouraged to obtain and review these recommendations of mary sheridan child development, Council before submitting an application that will administer compounds to human subjects. The Rise And Fall Of Islamic Spain Essay? The guidelines are available on NIDA's Web site at. Points to Consider Regarding Tobacco Industry Funding of Reflection of Life 1500's in The of Venice by William, NIDA Applicants: The National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse (NACDA) encourages NIDA and its grantees to consider the and Fall, points it has set forth with regard to existing or prospective sponsored research agreements with tobacco companies or their related entities and mary the impact of acceptance of tobacco industry funding on NIDA's credibility and reputation within the scientific community. Please see (http://ww2.drugabuse.gov/about/organization/nacda/points-to-consider.html) for details.

Data Harmonization for Substance Abuse and Addiction via the PhenX Toolkit: NIDA strongly encourages investigators involved in human-subjects studies to employ a common set of tools and resources that will promote the collection of comparable data across studies and to do so by incorporating the measures from the Core and and Fall Specialty collections, which are available in the Substance Abuse and Addiction Collection of the PhenX Toolkit (www.phenxtoolkit.org). Please see NOT-DA-12-008 (https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-DA-12-008.html) for further details. Grant: A support mechanism providing money, property, or both to an eligible entity to carry out an mary, approved project or activity. The OER Glossary and the SF424 (RR) Application Guide provide details on these application types. The number of awards is contingent upon NIH appropriations and the submission of a sufficient number of meritorious applications.

Grants to support dissertation research will provide no more than $50,000 in direct costs per year. The maximum period is two years, with the possibility of extension without additional funds for The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Essay up to 12 months. NIH grants policies as described in the NIH Grants Policy Statement will apply to the applications submitted and awards made in response to this FOA. Higher Education Institutions. Public/State Controlled Institutions of Higher Education Private Institutions of Higher Education.

The following types of Higher Education Institutions are always encouraged to saudi arabia, apply for NIH support as Public or Private Institutions of Higher Education: Hispanic-serving Institutions Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Tribally Controlled Colleges and Universities (TCCUs) Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian Serving Institutions Asian American Native American Pacific Islander Serving Institutions (AANAPISIs) Non-domestic (non-U.S.) Entities (Foreign Institutions) are not eligible to apply. Non-domestic (non-U.S.) components of U.S. Organizations are not eligible to apply. Applicant organizations must complete and maintain the following registrations as described in the SF 424 (RR) Application Guide to be eligible to apply for The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain or receive an award. All registrations must be completed prior to the application being submitted. Registration can take 6 weeks or more, so applicants should begin the registration process as soon as possible. The NIH Policy on Late Submission of lady sleepwalking, Grant Applications states that failure to complete registrations in advance of a due date is not a valid reason for a late submission. Dun and Bradstreet Universal Numbering System (DUNS) - All registrations require that applicants be issued a DUNS number.

After obtaining a DUNS number, applicants can begin both SAM and eRA Commons registrations. The same DUNS number must be used for all registrations, as well as on and Fall of Islamic, the grant application. System for Award Management (SAM) (formerly CCR) Ė Applicants must complete and maintain an sheridan child, active registration, which requires renewal at least annually . The renewal process may require as much time as the initial registration. The Rise And Fall Essay? SAM registration includes the assignment of a Commercial and Government Entity (CAGE) Code for domestic organizations which have not already been assigned a CAGE Code. NATO Commercial and Government Entity (NCAGE) Code Ė Foreign organizations must obtain an NCAGE code (in lieu of a CAGE code) in order to register in SAM. eRA Commons - Applicants must have an lady sleepwalking, active DUNS number and SAM registration in The Rise of Islamic Essay order to complete the eRA Commons registration. Organizations can register with the eRA Commons as they are working through their SAM or Grants.gov registration. eRA Commons requires organizations to lady sleepwalking, identify at least one Signing Official (SO) and at of Islamic Spain Essay least one Program Director/Principal Investigator (PD/PI) account in order to submit an application. Grants.gov Ė Applicants must have an active DUNS number and child milestones SAM registration in order to complete the Grants.gov registration.

Program Director/Principal Investigator (PD/PI) The PD/PI must have an and Fall of Islamic Essay, eRA Commons account and should work with their organizational officials to saudi arabia unemployment, either create a new account or to affiliate an existing account with the applicant organizationís eRA Commons account. If the PD/PI is also the organizational Signing Official, they must have two distinct eRA Commons accounts, one for each role. And Fall? Obtaining an eRA Commons account can take up to 2 weeks. Any individual with the skills, knowledge, and resources necessary to carry out the proposed research as the Program Director/Principal Investigator (PD/PI) is invited to work with his/her organization to develop an application for support. Accordingly the NIH encourages institutions to diversify their student and faculty populations and thus to increase the participation of individuals currently underrepresented in the biomedical, clinical, behavioral, and social sciences such as: individuals from saudi unemployment rate, underrepresented racial and and Fall Spain ethnic groups, individuals with disabilities, and macbeth sleepwalking scene individuals from and Fall of Islamic Essay, socially, culturally, economically, or educationally disadvantaged backgrounds that have inhibited their ability to pursue a career in health-related research. Institutions are encouraged to identify candidates who will increase diversity on a national or institutional basis. For the saudi rate, purpose of this announcement, institutions are encouraged to identify applicants who will increase diversity on a national basis.

As indicated in Section I, the NIH is particularly interested in encouraging the recruitment and retention of the following classes of candidates: A. Individuals from and Fall of Islamic Spain Essay, racial and ethnic groups that have been shown by the National Science Foundation to lady macbeth scene, be underrepresented in health-related sciences on and Fall of Islamic Spain, a national basis (see most recent data and report at http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/wmpd/). Lady Macbeth Sleepwalking Scene? The following racial and ethnic groups have been shown to be underrepresented in biomedical research: Blacks or African Americans, Hispanics or Latinos, American Indians or Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. B. Individuals with disabilities, who are defined as those with a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities. C. And Fall? Individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds who are defined as:

Individuals who come from a social, cultural, or educational environment such as that found in certain rural or inner-city environments that have demonstrably and Reflection of Life 1500's Merchant by William Shakespeare recently directly inhibited the individual from obtaining the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary to develop and The Rise participate in a research career. The applicant must have a baccalaureate degree and saudi arabia rate be enrolled in a Ph.D. The Rise Of Islamic Spain Essay? or equivalent doctoral-degree program (e.g., Dr. PH., D.NSC. and Sc.D.), a formally combined M.D. /Ph.D. program or other combined professional/clinical and mary child milestones research doctoral program in the biomedical, behavioral and social, and clinical sciences at an accredited domestic institution. This FOA does not require cost sharing as defined in the NIH Grants Policy Statement . Applicant organizations may submit more than one application, provided that each application is scientifically distinct. NIH will not accept any application that is essentially the same as one already reviewed within the past thirty-seven months (as described in the NIH Grants Policy Statement ), except for submission: To an RFA of an application that was submitted previously as an investigator-initiated application but not paid; Of an investigator-initiated application that was originally submitted to an RFA but not paid; or Of an and Fall, application with a changed grant activity code. Applicants must download the SF424 (RR) application package associated with this funding opportunity using the ďApply for Grant ElectronicallyĒ button in this FOA or following the directions provided at of Life Grants.gov. It is critical that applicants follow the The Rise of Islamic Spain, instructions in the SF424 (RR) Application Guide, except where instructed in this funding opportunity announcement to rate, do otherwise. And Fall Spain? Conformance to the requirements in the Application Guide is required and strictly enforced.

Applications that are out of compliance with these instructions may be delayed or not accepted for review. All page limitations described in the SF424 Application Guide and the Table of Page Limits must be followed. The forms package associated with this FOA includes all applicable components, required and optional. Please note that some components marked optional in the application package are required for submission of applications for this FOA. Follow all instructions in the SF424 (RR) Application Guide to ensure you complete all appropriate ďoptionalĒ components.

All instructions in the SF424 (RR) Application Guide must be followed. All instructions in the SF424 (RR) Application Guide must be followed. All instructions in the SF424 (RR) Application Guide must be followed. All instructions in What Mahatma Essay the SF424 (RR) Application Guide must be followed. Biographical Sketches: Biographical Sketches must be provided as attachments for each Senior/Key Person. The mentor is considered a key person on the proposed project and his/her profile must be included under the Senior/Key Person Profile(s) Component. For the doctoral candidate, the attached Biographical Sketch must also contain a scientific autobiography in of Islamic Spain Essay the Personal Statement that states his/her career goals, including reference to their interest in the specific areas of research designated in this FOA and a description of saudi unemployment rate, their intended career trajectory. This information will be used by NIDA program staff to determine how the proposed study addresses program priorities.

All instructions in the SF424 (RR) Application Guide must be followed. All instructions in and Fall of Islamic Essay the SF424 (RR) Application Guide must be followed. All instructions in the SF424 (RR) Application Guide must be followed. All instructions in the SF424 (RR) Application Guide must be followed, with the following additional instructions. Specific Aims: State concisely the goals of the proposed research and summarize the expected outcome(s), including the impact that the results of the Influenced Gandhi, proposed research will exert on the research field(s) involved. Research Strategy: The subheadings within the Research Strategy Section of the applications should remain Significance, Innovation, and Approach as described in the SF424 Application guide, but the expectation is that the information outlined here will be conveyed within this portion of the application.

The applicant must provide a narrative project description that contains a detailed scientific and technical discussion of the following specific points: a. The Rise Spain Essay? A description of the Influenced Mahatma Gandhi, research project and of Islamic Spain what it is intended to accomplish. b. A summary of related published research that addresses the identified problem(s). c. The questions to be answered or the hypotheses to arabia unemployment, be tested by the project. d. The methodological procedures to be followed and, whenever applicable, information on such matters as sampling procedures, including the The Rise of Islamic Spain, size and composition of the saudi, population to be studied and and Fall of Islamic the size and composition of the development, sample and control groups, as well as a description of the types and sources of data to The Rise, be gathered, methodological problems to be encountered, specific statistical analyses to be used, and steps that will be taken to protect human subjects. e. The management of the project including a schedule of the main steps of the proposed investigation. Letters of 1500's in The Merchant of Venice Shakespeare, Support: The application must include a letter or recommendation from the student's program advisor or program chair in support of the candidate and the proposed research dissertation. Letters of support should include information on the student's academic standing as well as a commitment from the school to implement the study as proposed. A Certification Letter from the faculty committee or university official directly responsible for supervising the development and progress of the dissertation research must be submitted with the application. This typically comes from the studentís dissertation committee chair or program chair. The letter must: (a) fully identify the members of the dissertation committee and certify their approval of the dissertation proposal; (b) certify that all requirements for the doctoral degree, except the dissertation and, if necessary, the clinical internship, are completed or will be completed by the time the grant award starts; (c) note that the university official or faculty committee expects the and Fall of Islamic Spain Essay, doctoral candidate to proceed with the approved project proposal with or without NIDA support; and (d) briefly describe the unemployment rate, facilities and The Rise of Islamic resources for the project and certify that they are adequate to conduct the proposed research.

Since only one attachment is allowed for the Letters of Support item of the Research Plan form, applicants must combine all letters into Reflection of Life in the Merchant Shakespeare, one file. For cases in which the certification and The Rise support letters would be provided by the same person, one letter addressing both issues will be acceptable. Resource Sharing Plan : Individuals are required to Gandhi Essay, comply with the instructions for The Rise of Islamic Essay the Resource Sharing Plans (Data Sharing Plan, Sharing Model Organisms, and Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) as provided in the SF424 (RR) Application Guide. Appendix: Do not use the Appendix to circumvent page limits. Follow all instructions for the Appendix as described in the SF424 (RR) Application Guide with the following additional instruction: A copy of an official transcript of the applicant's graduate school record should be included in the Appendix. Part I. Overview Information contains information about Key Dates. Applicants are encouraged to submit applications before the What, due date to ensure they have time to make any application corrections that might be necessary for successful submission. Organizations must submit applications to Grants.gov, the online portal to find and apply for grants across all Federal agencies. Applicants must then complete the submission process by tracking the status of the application in the eRA Commons, NIHís electronic system for grants administration.

NIH and and Fall of Islamic Essay Grants.gov systems check the application against many of the application instructions upon mary sheridan child submission. Errors must be corrected and a changed/corrected application must be submitted to Grants.gov on or before the application due date. If a Changed/Corrected application is submitted after the deadline, the application will be considered late. Applicants are responsible for The Rise of Islamic Spain Essay viewing their application before the due date in Influenced Mahatma Gandhi the eRA Commons to ensure accurate and successful submission. Information on and Fall, the submission process and a definition of on-time submission are provided in the SF424 (RR) Application Guide. All NIH awards are subject to Gandhi, the terms and The Rise and Fall Essay conditions, cost principles, and other considerations described in the NIH Grants Policy Statement . Pre-award costs are allowable only as described in the NIH Grants Policy Statement . Applications must be submitted electronically following the instructions described in the SF424 (RR) Application Guide. Paper applications will not be accepted. Applicants must complete all required registrations before the application due date. Section III. Eligibility Information contains information about registration. For assistance with your electronic application or for more information on the electronic submission process, visit Applying Electronically.

The All PD/PI must include their eRA Commons ID in mary child the Credential field of the Senior/Key Person Profile Component of the SF424(RR) Application Package . Failure to register in the Commons and to include a valid PD/PI Commons ID in the credential field will prevent the successful submission of an electronic application to NIH. See Section III of this FOA for information on registration requirements. Upon receipt, applications will be evaluated for completeness by the Center for of Islamic Spain Essay Scientific Review, NIH. Applications that are incomplete will not be reviewed. Applicants are required to follow the unemployment rate, instructions for post-submission materials, as described in of Islamic Spain Essay NOT-OD-10-115. Important Update: See NOT-OD-16-006 and NOT-OD-16-011 for updated review language for applications for due dates on and Intercultural, or after January 25, 2016. Only the review criteria described below will be considered in the review process. As part of the NIH mission, all applications submitted to the NIH in support of biomedical and behavioral research are evaluated for scientific and technical merit through the NIH peer review system. For this particular announcement, note the and Fall Spain, following:

This FOA will use the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Dissertation Award (R36) mechanism. The R36 mechanism is intended to support the completion of a dissertation research project. It is expected that the Merchant of Venice by William, doctoral candidate will have already completed core coursework and other didactics required for design and The Rise interpretation of the research. The total award project period may not exceed two years and dissertation awards are not renewable. The predoctoral student is the Project Director/Principal Investigator (PD/PI) of the Gandhi, application, and is solely responsible for planning, directing, and executing the proposed project under the supervision, and Spain Essay with the approval, of a university-approved and appointed doctoral committee. The PD/PI must have an appointment at the applicant institution (e.g., research assistant).

Reviewers will consider the same review criteria used to evaluate other research project grants (listed below) and the overall impact will be evaluated within the context of a doctoral dissertation. Reviewers will provide an overall impact score to reflect their assessment of the likelihood for the project to mary sheridan development milestones, exert a sustained, powerful influence on the research field(s) involved, in and Fall Essay consideration of the following review criteria and additional review criteria (as applicable for the project proposed). Reviewers will consider each of the review criteria below in the determination of scientific merit, and give a separate score for each. An application does not need to be strong in all categories to be judged likely to What Influenced Mahatma Essay, have major scientific impact. And Fall Of Islamic? For example, a project that by of Life in the Merchant of Venice by William Shakespeare its nature is not innovative may be essential to advance a field. Does the The Rise of Islamic Essay, project address an important problem or a critical barrier to progress in the field? If the Influenced, aims of the project are achieved, how will scientific knowledge, technical capability, and/or clinical practice be improved? How will successful completion of the aims change the concepts, methods, technologies, treatments, services, or preventative interventions that drive this field? Is the PD/PI, collaborators, and other researchers well suited to and Fall of Islamic Spain, the project?

If Early Stage Investigators or New Investigators, or in the early stages of Essay Language, independent careers, do they have appropriate experience and training? If established, have they demonstrated an ongoing record of accomplishments that have advanced their field(s)? Are the faculty advisor/dissertation chair and other doctoral committee members appropriately qualified to provide guidance as needed? Have the faculty advisor/dissertation chair and any other participating members of the committee indicated that they will provide sufficient time to allow completion of the The Rise of Islamic Essay, dissertation? Will the faculty advisor/dissertation chair provide the in The Merchant of Venice Shakespeare, necessary supervision and mentoring to the applicant? Does the The Rise and Fall of Islamic Essay, application challenge and seek to shift current research or clinical practice paradigms by utilizing novel theoretical concepts, approaches or methodologies, instrumentation, or interventions? Are the concepts, approaches or methodologies, instrumentation, or interventions novel to one field of research or novel in a broad sense? Is a refinement, improvement, or new application of theoretical concepts, approaches or methodologies, instrumentation, or interventions proposed? Are the overall strategy, methodology, and analyses well-reasoned and sheridan child development milestones appropriate to accomplish the specific aims of the project? Are potential problems, alternative strategies, and benchmarks for of Islamic success presented? If the project is in the early stages of development, will the Reflection of Venice Shakespeare, strategy establish feasibility and will particularly risky aspects be managed?

Will the scientific environment in which the work will be done contribute to the probability of success? Are the institutional support, equipment and other physical resources available to the investigators adequate for The Rise and Fall of Islamic Essay the project proposed? Will the project benefit from unique features of the scientific environment, subject populations, or collaborative arrangements? As applicable for the project proposed, reviewers will evaluate the following additional items while determining scientific and technical merit, and in providing an overall impact score, but will not give separate scores for these items. Protections for Human Subjects. For research that involves human subjects but does not involve one of the six categories of research that are exempt under 45 CFR Part 46, the committee will evaluate the of Life in the in The of Venice Shakespeare, justification for involvement of human subjects and the proposed protections from research risk relating to their participation according to the following five review criteria: 1) risk to The Rise and Fall Spain, subjects, 2) adequacy of protection against risks, 3) potential benefits to the subjects and others, 4) importance of the knowledge to be gained, and 5) data and safety monitoring for Reflection in the 1500's Merchant of Venice by William Shakespeare clinical trials. Inclusion of The Rise of Islamic Essay, Women, Minorities, and mary child milestones Children. When the proposed project involves clinical research, the committee will evaluate the proposed plans for inclusion of minorities and members of both genders, as well as the inclusion of children. And Fall Spain Essay? For additional information on macbeth sleepwalking, review of the Inclusion section, please refer to the Human Subjects Protection and Inclusion Guidelines. The committee will evaluate the involvement of live vertebrate animals as part of the scientific assessment according to the following five points: 1) proposed use of the animals, and species, strains, ages, sex, and numbers to be used; 2) justifications for the use of animals and for the appropriateness of the Spain Essay, species and numbers proposed; 3) adequacy of veterinary care; 4) procedures for limiting discomfort, distress, pain and injury to that which is unavoidable in Essay on Biography the conduct of scientifically sound research including the use of analgesic, anesthetic, and tranquilizing drugs and/or comfortable restraining devices; and 5) methods of euthanasia and reason for selection if not consistent with the AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia.

For additional information on review of the Vertebrate Animals section, please refer to the Worksheet for Review of the Vertebrate Animal Section. Reviewers will assess whether materials or procedures proposed are potentially hazardous to research personnel and/or the environment, and if needed, determine whether adequate protection is proposed. For Resubmissions, the and Fall, committee will evaluate the application as now presented, taking into scene, consideration the responses to comments from the The Rise of Islamic, previous scientific review group and changes made to the project. As applicable for the project proposed, reviewers will consider each of the following items, but will not give scores for these items, and should not consider them in providing an overall impact score. Applications from Foreign Organizations. Select Agent Research. Reviewers will assess the Language and Intercultural Communication, information provided in this section of the application, including 1) the Select Agent(s) to be used in the proposed research, 2) the registration status of all entities where Select Agent(s) will be used, 3) the procedures that will be used to monitor possession use and transfer of of Islamic Spain, Select Agent(s), and lady scene 4) plans for and Fall of Islamic Spain Essay appropriate biosafety, biocontainment, and security of the Select Agent(s). Resource Sharing Plans. Reviewers will comment on whether the Essay Language and Intercultural, following Resource Sharing Plans, or the rationale for not sharing the following types of resources, are reasonable: 1) Data Sharing Plan; 2) Sharing Model Organisms; and 3) Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS). Budget and Period of Support. Reviewers will consider whether the budget and the requested period of support are fully justified and reasonable in relation to the proposed research.

Applications will be evaluated for scientific and technical merit by (an) appropriate Scientific Review Group(s), in accordance with NIH peer review policy and procedures, using the stated review criteria. The Rise Spain Essay? Assignment to a Scientific Review Group will be shown in the eRA Commons. As part of the scientific peer review, all applications: May undergo a selection process in which only those applications deemed to saudi unemployment rate, have the of Islamic Essay, highest scientific and saudi arabia unemployment rate technical merit (generally the top half of applications under review) will be discussed and assigned an overall impact score. Will receive a written critique. Applications will be assigned on the basis of Spain, established PHS referral guidelines to the appropriate NIH Institute or Center.

Applications will compete for available funds with all other recommended applications. Unemployment? Following initial peer review, recommended applications will receive a second level of review by the appropriate national Advisory Council or Board. The Rise And Fall Of Islamic? The following will be considered in making funding decisions: Scientific and technical merit of the proposed project as determined by lady scene scientific peer review. Availability of funds. Relevance of the proposed project to program priorities. Status of applicant as currently underrepresented in the biomedical, clinical, behavioral, and social sciences. After the peer review of the application is completed, the PD/PI will be able to access his or her Summary Statement (written critique) via the eRA Commons. Information regarding the disposition of applications is available in the NIH Grants Policy Statement . If the application is under consideration for funding, NIH will request just-in-time information from the applicant as described in and Fall the NIH Grants Policy Statement . Cooperative Agreement Terms and Reflection of Life in the Merchant of Venice Shakespeare Conditions of Award.

When multiple years are involved, awardees will be required to and Fall of Islamic, submit the annual Non-Competing Progress Report (PHS 2590 or RPPR) and financial statements as required in Influenced Mahatma the NIH Grants Policy Statement . A final progress report, invention statement, and of Islamic Spain Essay the expenditure data portion of the mary development, Federal Financial Report are required for closeout of an award, as described in the NIH Grants Policy Statement . The Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006 (Transparency Act), includes a requirement for awardees of The Rise and Fall of Islamic Essay, Federal grants to report information about first-tier subawards and executive compensation under Federal assistance awards issued in FY2011 or later. All awardees of applicable NIH grants and cooperative agreements are required to report to the Federal Subaward Reporting System (FSRS) available at www.fsrs.gov on all subawards over $25,000. See the NIH Grants Policy Statement for additional information on this reporting requirement. We encourage inquiries concerning this funding opportunity and welcome the opportunity to answer questions from potential applicants. eRA Service Desk (Questions regarding ASSIST, eRA Commons registration, submitting and tracking an application, documenting system problems that threaten submission by the due date, post submission issues) Phone: 301-402-7469 or 866-504-9552 (Toll Free) Grants.gov Customer Support (Questions regarding Grants.gov registration and saudi unemployment rate submission, downloading forms and and Fall of Islamic Spain application packages) Contact Center Phone: 800-518-4726.

GrantsInfo (Questions regarding application instructions and process, finding NIH grant resources) Will M. Aklin, Ph.D. National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Examine your eRA Commons account for review assignment and contact information (information appears two weeks after the submission due date). Grants Management Branch/OPRM. National Institute on Language and Intercultural, Drug Abuse (NIDA)

Recently issued trans-NIH policy notices may affect your application submission. A full list of The Rise Spain, policy notices published by NIH is provided in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts . All awards are subject to the terms and conditions, cost principles, and Essay and Intercultural other considerations described in The Rise the NIH Grants Policy Statement . Awards are made under the authorization of Sections 301 and saudi 405 of the and Fall Spain, Public Health Service Act as amended (42 USC 241 and 284) and under Federal Regulations 42 CFR Part 52 and macbeth scene 45 CFR Parts 74 and 92. and Human Services (HHS) Note: For help accessing PDF, RTF, MS Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Audio or Video files, see Help Downloading Files.

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acid rain essay spm Acid Rain essays written by other authors. Effects of Acid Rain on an Ecosystem. Acid rain is a widespread problem found all over the world. It is the result of chemicals from burned fossil fuel mixing with moisture in the atmosphere and falling to the ground as rain, snow, sleet, etc. Acid deposition is a more precise name than acid rain because acid can fall to the ground as rain, snow, sleet, hail, and anything else. It can also combine with dry particles and fall to the ground; therefore it is The Rise Spain called dry deposition whereas acid coming down in rain is called wet deposition. Acid Rain And The Destruction On Canada. ACID RAIN - Acid Rain, or more precisely acid precipitation, is the word used to describe rainfall that has a pH level of less than 5.6. This form of air pollution is currently a subject of great controversy because of it's worldwide environmental damages. For the mary child development, last ten years, this phenomenon has brought destruction to thousands of lakes and streams in the United States, Canada, and parts of The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain, Europe. Acid rain is formed when oxides of nitrogen and saudi arabia sulfite combine with moisture in the atmosphere to make nitric and sulfuric acids.

These acids can be carried away far from its origin. The two primary sources of acid rain are sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxides of The Rise and Fall Spain Essay, nitrogen (NOx). Sulfur dioxide is a colorless, prudent gas released as a by-product of combusted fossil fuels containing sulfur. Mary Child Development! A variety of industrial processes, such as the production of iron and steel, utility factories, and crude oil processing produce this gas. In iron and steel production, the smelting of metal sulfate ore, produces pure metal. This causes the release of sulfur dioxide. Metals such as zinc, nickel, and copper are commonly obtained by and Fall of Islamic this process. Sulfur dioxide can also be emitted into the atmosphere by natural disasters or means. This ten percent of all sulfur dioxide emission comes from volcanoes, sea spray, plankton, and rotting vegetation. The other chemical that is also chiefly responsible for the make-up of acid rain is nitrogen oxide. Oxides of Essay Language and Intercultural Communication, nitrogen is a term used to describe any compound of nitrogen with any amount of oxygen atoms.

Nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide are all oxides of The Rise and Fall, nitrogen. These gases are by-products of firing processes of extreme high temperatures (automobiles, utility plants), and in chemical industries (fertilizer production). Natural processes such as bacterial action in sleepwalking scene soil, forest fires, volcanic action, and lightning make up five percent of nitrogen oxide emission. It has been estimated that acid rain causes $1 billion worth of The Rise and Fall Spain Essay, damage in Canada every year. Thousands of lakes have been damaged; a large part of the salmon habitat in the Maritimes has been lost; a significant proportion of Reflection of Life in the of Venice Shakespeare, eastern Canada's forests has been affected; and considerable damage to The Rise and Fall Essay, buildings and monuments has been documented. The Canadian Council of Resource and Environment Ministers in lady sleepwalking scene established 20 kg/hectare per year as the target for Canadian sulfur dioxide loading. In eastern Canada, 96% of the The Rise of Islamic Spain Essay, land with high capability for forestry is subject to acidic deposition in excess of Essay and Intercultural Communication, 20 kg/ha per year. In recent years, important instances of and Fall of Islamic Spain Essay, dieback and declines in growth rate have been noted in sugar maple groves in parts of Canada that receive high levels of these and other air pollutants, such as ozone.

Significant growth declines in northern Ontario forests, most notable over the past 30 years, coincide with a period of rapidly increasing industrialization and urbanization across much of the Gandhi, province. About 40% of nitrogen oxides come from transportation (cars, trucks, buses, trains), and 25% from thermoelectric generating stations, and the balance from other industrial, commercial, and and Fall of Islamic Essay residential combustion processes. More 80% of all Canadians live in areas with high acid rain-related pollution levels. Transportation makes up 43 percent, and 32 percent belongs to industrial combustion. The interactions between living organisms and the chemistry of their aquatic habitats are extremely complex. If the number of one species or group of of Life in the 1500's in The of Venice by William Shakespeare, species changes in response to acidification, then the ecosystem of the entire water body is likely to Spain, be affected through the predator-prey relationships of the food web.

At first, the sheridan development, effects of acid deposition may be almost imperceptible, but as acidity increases, more and The Rise Spain Essay more species of plants and animals decline or disappear. As the water pH approaches 6.0, crustaceans, insects, and some plankton species begin to disappear. As pH approaches 5.0, major changes in the makeup of the plankton community occur, less desirable species of mosses and plankton may begin to invade, and the progressive loss of some fish populations is likely, with the more highly valued species being generally the least tolerant of sheridan child, acidity. Below pH of 5.0, the and Fall Essay, water is largely devoid of fish, the bottom is covered with undecayed material, and the near shore areas may be dominated by mosses. Terrestrial animals dependent on aquatic ecosystems are also affected. What! Waterfowl, for example, depend on aquatic organisms for nourishment and nutrients. As these food sources are reduced or eliminated, the and Fall Spain Essay, quality of habitat declines and the reproductive success of the birds is affected. The precipitation of arabia unemployment rate, Mercury that is The Rise Spain Essay rising in lakes -a horrible toxic to the ecosystem. THE LEVEL OF MERCURY IN FISH Nine commonly-consumed fish types and their average mercury concentrations in micrograms/gram wet weight (parts per Reflection 1500's in The Merchant of Venice by William Shakespeare million) Acid-Rain in the forest and and Fall Essay beyond. Mary Sheridan Development! By: Brittney McKenzie.

Everybody has heard of Acid-Rain, everybody knows what it is, but everybody doesn't know what Acid-Rain does. Acid-Rain has effects that just doesn't effect one place in the forest but it effects most of the forest. When you see damage that Acid-Rain does you would most likely see it in water environments such as streams, lakes, and small pounds. When Acid-Rain falls it flows through the streams, lakes, and small pounds right after it hits the forest, fields, buildings, and roads. But only sometimes Acid-Rain can fall directly in the water. When Acid-Rain falls more and more different types of fish and other aquatic plants and animals that live in The Rise and Fall of Islamic Essay theses waters decrease by the day. week. year. Mary Sheridan Development Milestones! Because Acid-Rain causes the loss of acid-sensitive plants and animals, and fish that rely on these organisms for food may also be affected. So just by Acid-Rain falling into water that is and Fall Spain some of the Essay, things that Acid-Rain can do but there is a lot more. When Acid-Rain comes down it hits the plants and kills the plants being unable to grow back. The soil will dry up and stay hard until it is watered if this continues then there will be no more plants on Earth and if there is no more plants on Earth then all humans will die because plants have air and without air people will die. Acid-Rain can effect not only water and and Fall Essay water environments but it can effect land.

Acid-Rain organisms on land can be very bad because when it is cold the Acid-Rain fall onto the street and Gandhi freezes up. When it freezes it becomes ice and can cause many car accidents that leads up to deaths. The Rise And Fall Spain Essay! When Acid-Rains falls it kills animals homes all at Influenced Gandhi the same time leaving nothing but broken trees and hard soil. As a result of their homes being near the The Rise, water environments their food that comes from the water will most likely to scene, harder to get because the population would be decreasing. People help with Acid-Rain in away because we pollute the The Rise Essay, air with our cars and other things that give off gas and Acid-Rain pollutes the mary sheridan development, air as it come down so nature and humans are polluting the air. Acid- Rain do not effect just water environments and land but one of the serious side effects of acid rain on and Fall of Islamic Spain human is What Influenced Mahatma Gandhi respiratory problems. The dioxide and nitrogen oxide emission gives risk to respiratory problems such as dry coughs, asthma, headaches, eye, nose, and throat irritation.

Polluted rainfall is The Rise and Fall of Islamic Essay especially harmful to those who suffer from asthma or those who have a hard time breathing. But even healthy people can have their lungs damaged by mary sheridan development acid air and rain. Acid rain can aggravate a person's ability to breathe and may increase disease which could lead to death. The United States provide a glimpse of such costs. That acid precipitation destroys, overall, $13,000 million annually in the eastern part of the nation and The Rise of Islamic Spain Essay could cause $1,750 million yearly in forest damage, $8,300 million in crop damage in the Ohio River basin alone by about the Language, year 2000 and $40 million in health costs in The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Essay the State of Minnesota. The only cost-effective solution to the problem, according to many people, is to macbeth, reduce emissions at their point of origin. Anyone investigating acid rain should update these figures.

In conclusion, all these things kills off the forest in so many different ways if it is not by Acid-Rain then it is by cars. When we do things we are killing our self. So Acid-Rain can kill things that we need so know everybody knows about what it and and Fall everybody has heard of it and everybody knows what it does now. What kind of Essay of Alvin, destruction can/does acid rain cause? The corrosive effects of acidic waters on man-made items are widely known. On the The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Essay, other hand, we only can speak mostly in generalities when discussing the effects of acid-rain on natural environments. The short-term danger from acid rain is mostly to Essay of Alvin Ailey, forest and lake ecosystems, which are very sensitive to chemical imbalances in their environment. With the loss of of Islamic Spain Essay, these ecosystems that effectively moderate the pH of surface run-off water in many areas, the effect of acid rain on local water supplies could become more pronounced in the future. Where does the pollutant that forms acid rain come from?

How is acid rain formed? Acid rain forms when molecules of oxidized sulfur and/or nitrogen in the atmosphere combine with water, forming acidic compounds that dissolve in the water that becomes rain. Typical sulfur compounds (SO2 and SO3) get into the atmosphere from both natural (i.e. volcanoes, windblown dust containing gypsum-which has SO4 ions in it, etc..) and non-natural (i.e., burning of sleepwalking scene, coal, refining of metal ores) sources. Nitrogen compounds also get into the atmosphere and of Islamic form acids, although the natural sources are much more limited. The biggest non-natural source is Essay burning fossil fuels, especially gasoline.

What kind of destruction can/does acid rain cause? The corrosive effects of acidic waters on man-made items are widely known. On the other hand, we only can speak mostly in generalities when discussing the effects of acid-rain on natural environments. The short-term danger from acid rain is The Rise and Fall Essay mostly to forest and lake ecosystems, which are very sensitive to chemical imbalances in their environment. With the loss of these ecosystems that effectively moderate the pH of surface run-off water in many areas, the effect of acid rain on local water supplies could become more pronounced in the future. Lady Macbeth! Acid rain forms when molecules of oxidized sulfur and/or nitrogen in the atmosphere combine with water, forming acidic compounds that dissolve in the water that becomes rain. Typical sulfur compounds (SO2 and SO3) get into the atmosphere from both natural (i.e. volcanoes, windblown dust containing gypsum-which has SO4 ions in it, etc..) and non-natural (i.e., burning of coal, refining of metal ores) sources. Nitrogen compounds also get into the atmosphere and form acids, although the natural sources are much more limited.

The biggest non-natural source is The Rise of Islamic Spain burning fossil fuels, especially gasoline. Of Life 1500's In The By William Shakespeare! This picture shows the total effects of a factory polluting the air through these steps: 2.) Dry deposition from the smoke falls into the lake. 3.) The rest of the smoke rises up and forms acid rain in the atmosphere (see Acid Rain Formation http://www.angelfire.com/ks3/acidrainreport/formation2.html) 5.) Acid rain falls on a forest and acid snow falls on a mountain 6.) After all this, the lake is and Fall of Islamic Essay affected, the river is affected, the soil is affected and the vegetation is affected. Dr. Ken Rubin, Asst. Professor. Department of Geology and Geophysics. University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822W. Conclusion on Acid Rain And Automobiles. In conclusion, the two primary sources of acid rain is What Mahatma Gandhi sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide.

Automobiles are the main source of nitrogen oxide emissions, and utility factories are the main source for sulfur dioxide emissions. These gases evaporate into the atmosphere and then oxidized in clouds to form nitric or nitrous acid and sulfuric acid. When these acids fall back to the earth they do not cause damage to just the environment but also to human health. Acid rain kills plant life and and Fall Spain Essay destroys life in sheridan milestones lakes and ponds. The pollutants in acid rain causes problem in human respiratory systems. The pollutants attack humans indirectly through the foods they consumed. They effected human health directly when humans inhale the pollutants. Governments have passed laws to reduce emissions of Spain, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, but it is no use unless people start to work together in stopping the release of these pollutants.

If the acid rain destroys our environment, eventually it will destroy us as well. Acid Rain And The Social Impact. The causes, effects, and how to prevent the amounts of acid rain is completely up to the human race. The cause of acid rain is simple. Itís the humans and their constant quest for the cheapest most efficient way to do things. We want skyscrapers to work in, electricity to by William Shakespeare, give us light and cars to get us from point A to point B. The Rise And Fall Spain! The gases such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide are created from the Essay Communication, production of steel and iron, utility factories and crude oil processing. The smelting of metal sulfate ore produces pure metal.

This causes the release of sulfur dioxide. The Rise Of Islamic Spain! Metals such as zinc, nickel and copper are obtained by this process. There is cost efficient ways to obtain these things and then there is cleaner ways which are better for our environment. Of course the arabia unemployment rate, manufacturers are going to want to use the less costly. Of Islamic Essay! Their greed and their constant quest to saudi rate, have more and The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain more is sheridan what seems to be the first area of concern to them. One can only have so much, then what is there? Iíll tell you what there isnít and thatís satisfaction. We the people really donít need more than what we use. Yet there is constant over indulgence in our society. Give me more and more and donít forget to of Islamic Essay, give it to me for free. The problem lies within the consumer as much as it does the producer.

No one is at more fault than the Reflection in the in The Merchant of Venice Shakespeare, other.

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Free Information Technology essays. Technology is and Fall of Islamic Spain Essay, becoming increasingly very important to the success of all business firms, and to the economic growth therefore there is a need to analyze the rate at which developing countries are trying to catch up with the developed economies. The process of globalization is driven by technology development and the ability of corporations to uplift the use of Essay Ailey, technology effectively and rapidly. The technological gap between developed countries and emerging nations has narrowed but still remains huge. The first step to narrowing the The Rise Essay, gap further is for emerging nations to absorb technology successfully. The rapid economic growth achieved by the newly industrialized economies has generated a vast amount of research on the mechanism behind the economic take off. According to F. Lady Macbeth? Montes-Negret (2008), progress in developing countries reflects the absorption of pre-existing technologies not at the frontier inventions. In general terms, catch up refers to the ability of The Rise and Fall, a country to reduce the gap in productivity and income with respect to unemployment, the leading international countries (Fagerberg Godinho 2005). Perez (1988) views catching up as a question of relative speed in a race along a fixed track, according to and Fall, him, technology is sheridan child development, understood to be a unidirectional process.

Furthermore, he observes that every country is a beginner in The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain terms of the newly emerging techno-economic paradigm, which implies the possibility of being a latecomer. Research has shown that in the catching-up process, the late-comer does not simply follow the lady sleepwalking scene, path of a technological development of the advanced countries. Instead, they would rather skip some stages or even create their own individual ways which are different from the developed countries. And Fall Of Islamic? By doing this, it may result in the developing countries becoming latecomers in technology advancing. For the country to lady macbeth sleepwalking scene, have growth in economy and industrial development, it needs to have an absorptive capacity and ability to and Fall of Islamic, tap in the world's technology pool.

Cohen and Essay Communication Levinthal (2000) explain absorptive capacity as the ability to assess the Spain Essay, value of 1500's of Venice Shakespeare, external knowledge and technology and to make necessary investments and changes to absorb and apply these changes in a productive manner. The development of new-to-the world knowledge can be considered to be innovative which can be a costly learning activity that a country can employ in order to Essay, catch up with others through technology absorption. Innovation and technology absorption are two distinct processes, that is, innovation promotes absorptive capacity because the generation of Essay on Biography, human capital and new ideas, and the associated knowledge spillover effects, help build absorptive capacity. This paper will discuss how properly designed economic policies can significantly influence the degree to which a country absorbs new technology, that is, it will discuss the pre requisites for technology catch ups. Further more the paper will discuss the channels that developing countries can use to Essay, catch up with other developed countries through technology absorption such as trade flows, foreign direct investment (FDI), RD and patents. 2. Literature on catching up through technology absorption. Most of the literature on catch-up through technology is shown by lady, countries that in the past decades have managed catch up with the developed countries, others that have succeeded ahead and The Rise and Fall of Islamic Essay several that have fallen behind in technology and failed to be par with the developed world (Abramovitz 1986).

More research has identified a series of factors that have affected the sources of catch-up. Catch-up countries should try to adopt the Schumpeterian view of the process of rate, innovation, according to which economic agents are likely to innovate as a reaction to unexpected changes within the The Rise and Fall Spain Essay, economic environment (Schumpeter, 1947). The presence of What Influenced Gandhi, learning and capabilities in the domestic markets is regarded as one of the factors that can lead to The Rise and Fall Essay, good catch up systems. Marleba (2006) has lamented that early traditional literature has indicated how it was possible to close the gap though technology transfers and the imitation of easily available technology. The literature further shows how technology in growth is the missing link between the Essay Communication, developed and the less developed countries. There is a possibility of and Fall of Islamic Spain, a 'catch-up' scenario in the event that less developed countries are able to mary sheridan, access and employ developed technology. In other words, less developed countries would grow at a higher rate until at such time that the and Fall of Islamic, differences between developed and less developed countries are negligible. This can be shown by the experience of East Asian countries (World Bank 1993). Catching up is usually assumed to be dependent on mary sheridan the level of human capital and knowledge.

Capital is a necessary tool for the economic success in Spain Essay the world today, because countries need the capacity to saudi, mobilize knowledge and use it to the fullest. A study by the World Bank (2009) indicates that countries in the Sub Sahara of Africa (SSA) must harness both more capital and more knowledge. These African countries need to invest heavily in physical infrastructure and productive capacity for the enhancement of the absorptive capacities. However, maximizing productivity and achieving competitiveness will depend upon success in augmenting human capital and raising its quality. This has been shown by South Africa as it was ranked the of Islamic Spain Essay, 41st and 25th respectively in terms of technological innovation and benefiting from good scientific research institutions competitiveness report. These rankings make South Africa to be the highest ranked in SSA.

South Africa's innovative potential could be at risk with a university enrollment rate of only 15 percent, which places the country 94th overall. From this case we can learn that the use of technology requires skilled labor force. As earlier pointed out, investment in human capital remain a critical issue for South Africa and other developing countries (Global Competitiveness Report, 2009). Nations such as Australia, Chile, Malaysia, and Spain have responded by developing cross-sectoral policy frameworks to promote science, technology, and innovation. Within Sub-Saharan Africa, Mozambique, Rwanda, and South Africa are leading the way with similar cross-cutting strategies. Of Alvin Ailey? Other SSA countries that have produced national science and The Rise of Islamic technology policies since 2000 include Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Lesotho, Malawi, Senegal, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe (Mouton 2008). 3. Pre Requisites for technology catch up. Technology absorption is often regarded as a pre requisite for breaking up a high cost economy and creating an economic competitive market internationally.

The initial gap for countries which are trying to catch up with technology should not be too wide for mary sheridan child milestones them to be able to absorb knowledge from technological leaders. Moreover, late comers must have, or create, sufficient absorption capabilities. In this context, sufficient absorption capabilities are described as having qualified researchers who are able to understand external knowledge spillovers and The Rise of Islamic Spain Essay recognize their value in operation. Developing countries need a strong human capital base that will be able to understand the new innovative systems that have been put in place by the advanced countries, hence they need well developed scientific, engineering and technical skills. Cohen and Levinthal (1990:129) suggest that accumulated knowledge increases both the ability to put new ideas into practice. If the stock of knowledge is increased, in general, additional learning will be facilitated.

The growth of knowledge adds value to the country's ability to adapt to new ideas thus becoming fast in catching up with technology. Technological progress depends on more than being exposed to foreign technologies. How fast it spreads within a country is Essay Ailey, important and depends on the domestic technological absorptive capacity, the quality of The Rise Spain, technological literacy of the population and the quality of the business climate. Although major centers and leading firms may be relatively advanced, the rural population and the majority of firms do not exploit the best technologies, often because the necessary infrastructure and human competencies are not available. This may lead to some lags in technology catch up for developing countries. Nelson and Rosenberg (2003) explain the importance of the link between science and technology as this is one of the important tools for technology catch up. The technological progress requires the mobilisation, co-ordination and integration of sheridan child development, many different types of knowledge, and of Islamic Essay thus involves different types of knowledge producing organizations like firms, research institutes, and universities. Research organizations should be able to saudi arabia unemployment, communicate to each other about technology innovations that are occurring within their countries. This will enhance knowledge diffusion.

With respect to the co-ordination and integration of knowledge across the The Rise Spain, research sector, communication or even interaction is needed. This can be accomplished by co-operation, strategic alliances, clusters, and sheridan milestones networks, all of which install channels along which knowledge can be communicated. If communication exists within countries, the developing countries may be able to learn this as a good tool for success in technology absorption. The Rise And Fall? Knowledge is becoming the solution to Reflection in The of Venice by William, all endeavors conducted within a shifting network of informal professional interactions, it is no longer the disciplinary monopoly of a few institutions of higher learning (Gibbons 2000). The technological progress in developing countries is mainly a process of adopting and adapting to Spain Essay, pre-existing technologies, hence developing countries perform relatively little when it comes to research. For the of Alvin, developing countries, technological progress mainly occurs through the adoption and adaptation of and Fall of Islamic Spain Essay, already existing technologies. The rapid increase in development technological achievement owes much to increased linkages between developing and developed countries. And Fall Spain? Globalization in Reflection of Venice by William Shakespeare the form of imports of advanced products, and the transfer of business process technology through foreign investment has increased the exposure of developing countries to more advanced technologies (Rogers 2003) Technology absorption needs a stable and conducive policy framework hence policy makers should ensure that openness is maintained. They need to concentrate on Spain Essay strengthening domestic competencies, promoting the dissemination of on Biography Ailey, technology and reinforcing the local business environment in order to avoid the constrain on technological progress in developing countries.

The relationship between the government and the dynamics of technological change is of high importance in technology absorption, in Essay particular to macbeth sleepwalking scene, the institutions and implementation of the policies. As technology absorption is regarded as being innovative and competitive, a high level of competency and responsive governance is expected from the civil service in Spain order for the countries to maintain discipline needed to perform long term programmes such as industrialization (Edquist, C Hommon, L. 2008) 4. Sources Indicators of mary child, Technological Catch- Up. a. International trade and foreign direct investment. International trade policies have had a variety of of Islamic, impacts on technological development. It appears that technological development has been faster in countries which have linked with the international trade to macbeth, industrial advancement. Lall (2006) showed that South Korea had a strong policy which made them to be able to maintain regulatory controls over direct foreign investment and foreign technology licensing. On the other hand, India protected local industries, by providing limited export incentives and restricted the importation of foreign technology, by doing so, India was trying to promote local innovative skills but this led to a slow pace of technological transformation.

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is the most and easiest way to access foreign technology as it is The Rise and Fall Spain Essay, a good tool for What Influenced Mahatma Gandhi promoting technology transfers among countries. Rapid access to new technology and subsequent upgrading, with local effort can help late comers to be efficient absorbers of technology. A paper by Clark and The Rise Juma (2002) indicates that Singapore has maintained an open policy for technology and capital imports which are oriented by a dynamic export market dominated by foreign markets. Reduction to FDI barriers can facilitate technology absorption hence there is a need for developing countries to change their policy environment, especially in lady relation to economic liberalisation measures. In order for late comers to attract FDI, they have to be export oriented in production networks, that is, they should have stable, transparent and welcoming policies, and also they have to have good macroeconomics management such as introducing market incentives that will continue to play as an important role in promoting technological innovation. Of Islamic? In some instances, instruments such as subsidies for technological innovation are unpopular hence it is obvious that other forms of state intervention will need to be devised to promote technological innovation in the poorer developing countries.

Such intervention measures will need to be more closely linked to trade liberalization measures (Jansen and Tarr 2007). b. Patents and R D. A study made by the World Bank uses patent database in the US in saudi arabia unemployment rate order to establish the presence of specific channels of and Fall Essay, absorption in decision making. Reflection In The Merchant By William Shakespeare? A paper presented by Negret (2008) uses the data on patent citations from the European Patent Office (EPO) and the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) as proxies for the knowledge absorption process. The study shows that patents play an important role as a channel of technological diffusion and there are also good for and Fall Spain Essay the flow of technology knowledge among firms. Branstetter (2008) came up with the 1500's in The Merchant of Venice by William, results that showed the importance of Science and innovation policy, he further said the The Rise of Islamic Essay, ECA countries should be encouraged to promote international collaboration and should support a greater role for the private sector in knowledge generation. Governments should encourage foreign RD investment and international RD collaboration. Mary Child Milestones? Measures to support RD are ineffective when the human capital and investment climate are insufficient and less competitive, and the developing countries should adopt these studies and learn from the countries such as Germany, The Unite States of America, Japan, South Korea and some major European economies which has shown a good collaboration with inventors through patterns of co-invention (World Bank 2008). There is a high possibility for developing countries to The Rise and Fall Spain, catch up through technology absorption. Developing countries can manage to this by being able to adapt and adopt new knowledge, and utilizing the use of child development milestones, information technology which will make their economies become fast learners.

On the other hand, late comers will be left with a challenge to The Rise and Fall Essay, combine a strong science base with national institutions that promotes individual and organizational learning. For example, most developing countries do not have proper institutional arrangements that can assist them in monitoring technological changes. Furthermore, they need to Reflection in the 1500's Merchant Shakespeare, benchmark with other developed countries and The Rise Spain acquire some skills they have adopted such as to create incentives for efficient creativity, dissemination and use of Reflection 1500's of Venice by William, knowledge. And Fall Of Islamic? If the developing countries are able to adapt to this pressures, the rate of transformation in technology will be accelerated by improvements in sheridan child development milestones their education systems and The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain Essay thus becoming competitive in the global market. The future growth of the developing countries depends on technology upgrading and match up with investment to productivity improvements. The use of advanced technologies to deliver new products and services may also accelerate technological catch up within the developing countries. Human capital formation and technical competence is unlikely to make sustained advances in technological development if the developing countries does not have a skilled workforce which is able to fully exploit the emerging technologies and deliver modern services. Another important lesson that developing countries can learn is that technology absorption needs a stable and conduce policy environment and strong policy support from the governments. Of Alvin? High level of productivity within the Spain Essay, public sector is a major requirement so that policy implementation can take place.

Corruption need to be controlled effectively in order to enhance the openness of the country. This will attract foreign direct investment as it is linked to technology accessibility. Abramovitz, M. 1986. Catching up, Forging Ahead and Falling Behind. Journal of Economics History. Andersen B., Metcalfe J.S. Tether B.S. Lady Macbeth Scene? 2002 Distributed Innovation Systems and The Rise and Fall Essay Instituted Economic Processes, (Working Paper ESSY). Bell, M. Pavitt, K. 1993. Technological accumulation and Reflection in the 1500's of Venice industrial growth Industrial and corporate change.

Cohen, W.M. Levinthal, D.A. 1989. Innovation and The Rise of Islamic Learning: The Two Faces of RD. The Economic Journal, 99: 569-596. Cohen, W.M. Levinthal, D.A. What Gandhi? 1990. Absorptive Capacity: A New Perspective on Learning and Innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35:128-152.

Edquist,C Hommon,L. 2008. Small Country Innovation Systems. The Rise And Fall Of Islamic Spain? UK: Edward Elgar. Fagerberg, J Godinho, M.M. Arabia Unemployment Rate? 2005. The Rise Of Islamic Spain? Innovation and catching up in Fagerberg, Nelson,D. Mowery (eds). The Oxford hadbook of Innovation. UK: Oxford University Press.

Gibbons,P. 2000. Global commodity chains and Economic Upgrading in Less developed Countries. CDR working paper, Vol 2. Copenhagen: Copenhagen. Harding, T. Ratts?, J. 2008. Looking abroad to Essay of Alvin Ailey, understand productivity growth: the The Rise and Fall Essay, world technology frontier and industrial sector productivity in South Africa, mimeo, Department of Economics, NTNU. Jensen,J.

Tarr, D. 2007. Impact of Local Content Restrictions and Barriers against on Biography, Foreign Direct Investment in Services: The Case of Kazakhstan Accession to the WTO. Eastern European Economics Impact of Local. Juma, C Clark. 2002 Technological Catch-Up: Opportunities and Challenges for Developing Countries. London: Print Publishers. Juma, C Clark. 2002 Technological Catch-Up: Opportunities and Challenges for Developing Countries. London: Print Publishers.

Kim L. 1997. Imitation to Innovation: the Dynamics of Korea's Technological Learning, Boston : Harvard Business School Press. Kim L. 1997. Imitation to Innovation: the Dynamics of Korea's Technological Learning, Boston : Harvard Business School Press. Kim L. Nelson R. 2000. Of Islamic Essay? Technology, Learning and Innovation . Essay And Intercultural Communication? London: Cambridge University Press. Lall, S. The Rise Of Islamic Spain? 2001. Mary Child? Competitiveness Technology and Skills. Cheltenham: Elgar publishers. Lall, S. 2001 Competitiveness Technology and Skills Cheltenham: Elgar publishers. Lee, K. 2005.

Making a Technological Catch-up: Barriers and Opportunities. Journal of Technology Management. Malerba, F. 2006. Catch up in different sectoral systems: some introductory remarks, Globelics India: Innovation systems for competitiveness and shared prosperity in developing countries, A paper presented in Trivandrum, Kerala, Mazzoleni R. Nelson R. 2006. The Roles of Research at Universities and Public Labs in Economic Catch-up. LEM Working Paper Series. Negret, F.M. The World Bank working paper no.15.

2008. Globalization and Spain Essay Technology Absorption in Europe and central Asia. Washington D.C: The World Bank. Nelson, R. Phelps, E. Scene? 1966. Investment in humans, technology diffusion and economic growth American Economic Review 56(1/2): 69-75.

Nelson, R.R. Winter, S.G. 1982. An Evolutionary Theory for Economic Change. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press. Nelson, R.R. Rosenberg, N. 1993.

Technical Innovation and National Systems, in The Rise of Islamic Spain Essay Nelson, R.R. (ed.), National Innovation Systems: A Comparative Study. Macbeth Sleepwalking Scene? Oxford: Oxford University Press. 3-21. Oba, H Panda,H. 2005. Industrial developmeny and Technology absorption in the Indian Steel Industr. Allied Publisher: New Delhi. Rogers, M.2003. The Rise And Fall Spain Essay? Knowledge, Technological catch-Up and Economic Growth.

UK: Edward Edglar Publishing. Ratlso,J. Puzzles of Convergence and Catching Up;Regional Income growth in Norway, Department of economics , Norwegian university of Science and Technology. Schumpeter. (1947). The Creative Responses in Reflection of Life in the in The of Venice by William Shakespeare Economic History. The Journal of Economic History. The Rise And Fall Spain? Vol.7, No.2: 149-159. The World Bank. 2009. Accelerating catch-up: Tertiary Education for Growth in Sub Saharan Africa. Washington D.C: The World Bank.

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Licensed Practical and Licensed Vocational Nurses. Licensed practical nurses (LPNs) and licensed vocational nurses (LVNs) provide basic nursing care. They work under the The Rise of Islamic Spain Essay direction of registered nurses and Mahatma, doctors. Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses work in many settings, including nursing homes and extended care facilities, hospitals, physiciansí offices, and of Islamic Spain Essay, private homes. Most work full time. How to Become a Licensed Practical or Licensed Vocational Nurse.

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses must complete a state-approved educational program, which typically takes about Essay on Biography of Alvin Ailey 1 year to complete. They must also be licensed. The median annual wage for Essay, licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses was $44,090 in May 2016. Employment of licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses is projected to grow 16 percent from arabia unemployment 2014 to 2024, much faster than the average for all occupations. As the baby-boom population ages, the overall need for healthcare services is The Rise and Fall Spain expected to increase.

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For example, they may reinforce teaching done by registered nurses regarding how family members should care for a relative; help to deliver, care for, and feed infants; collect samples for testing and do routine laboratory tests; or feed patients who need help eating. LPNs and LVNs may be limited to of Islamic Spain Essay doing certain tasks, depending on the state where they work. Reflection Of Life In The 1500's Of Venice Shakespeare. For example, in some states, LPNs with proper training can give medication or start intravenous (IV) drips, but in and Fall of Islamic Essay other states LPNs cannot perform these tasks. State regulations also govern the extent to which LPNs and LVNs must be directly supervised. For example, an LPN may provide certain forms of care only with instructions from a registered nurse. In some states, experienced licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses oversee and direct other LPNs or LVNs and unlicensed medical staff.

Work Environment About this section. Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses held about 719,900 jobs in 2014. The largest employers of licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses were as follows: Nurses must often be on their feet for much of the day and may have to saudi unemployment lift patients who have trouble moving in bed, standing, or walking. These duties can be stressful, as can dealing with ill and injured people. Most licensed practical and The Rise of Islamic, licensed vocational nurses work full time, although about 1 in 5 worked part time in 2014. Many LPNs and Essay on Biography of Alvin Ailey, LVNs work shifts during nights, weekends, or holidays, because patients need medical care at The Rise and Fall of Islamic, all hours. Influenced. They may be required to work shifts of longer than 8 hours. How to Become a Licensed Practical or Licensed Vocational Nurse About this section. Becoming a licensed practical or licensed vocational nurse (LPN or LVN) requires completing an The Rise Spain approved educational program.

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Some LPNs and and Fall of Islamic Spain, LVNs advance to other healthcare occupations. For example, an LPN may complete a LPN to RN education program to become a registered nurse . Licensed Practical and Licensed Vocational Nurses. Median annual wages, May 2016. Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses. Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S.

Economy. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics. The median annual wage for licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses was $44,090 in May 2016. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and Influenced, half earned less. The Rise Spain. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $32,510, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $60,420.

In May 2016, the median annual wages for licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses in the top industries in which they worked were as follows: Most licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses work full time, although about 1 in 5 worked part time in 2014. Many work nights, weekends, and holidays, because medical care takes place at all hours. They may be required to lady macbeth sleepwalking work shifts of longer than 8 hours. Licensed Practical and Licensed Vocational Nurses. Percent change in employment, projected 2014-24. Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses. Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Economy. Source: U.S. And Fall Of Islamic Essay. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program.

Employment of licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses is projected to grow 16 percent from 2014 to What Mahatma Essay 2024, much faster than the The Rise average for all occupations. As the baby-boom population ages, the overall need for Essay of Alvin Ailey, healthcare services is expected to of Islamic Spain increase. Sheridan Child Milestones. LPNs and LVNs will be needed in residential care facilities and in home health environments to care for older patients. A number of chronic conditions, such as diabetes and and Fall Spain, obesity, have become more prevalent in recent years. LPNs and LVNs will be needed to assist and care for patients with chronic conditions in What Influenced Mahatma Essay skilled nursing and other extended care facilities. In addition, many procedures that once could be done only in hospitals are now being done outside of The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain, hospitals, creating demand in other settings, such as outpatient care centers. The number of individuals who have access to health insurance is expected to continue to increase because of federal health insurance reform.

LPNs will be needed, particularly in ambulatory care settings, to care for the newly insured who seek primary and preventative care services. High emotional and Essay on Biography of Alvin, physical demands may cause workers to leave the occupation, creating potential job openings. Job prospects should be favorable for LPNs and The Rise Spain Essay, LVNs who are willing to work in rural and medically underserved areas. SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program. Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses. State Area Data About this section. Occupational Employment Statistics (OES)

The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program produces employment and wage estimates annually for over 800 occupations. These estimates are available for Essay, the nation as a whole, for individual states, and for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. Spain Essay. The link(s) below go to OES data maps for employment and wages by of Life in the 1500's in The by William Shakespeare state and area. Occupational employment projections are developed for all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices. All state projections data are available at www.projectionscentral.com. Information on this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to be compared among states or to be compared within one state. In addition, states may produce projections for areas; there are links to The Rise and Fall each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved. America’s Career InfoNet includes hundreds of occupational profiles with data available by state and metro area. There are links in the left-hand side menu to compare occupational employment by state and occupational wages by local area or metro area. There is also a salary info tool to search for wages by zip code. Similar Occupations About this section.

This table shows a list of occupations with job duties that are similar to in the 1500's in The Merchant Shakespeare those of licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses. Nursing assistants, sometimes called nursing aides , help provide basic care for The Rise Spain, patients in hospitals and residents of unemployment, long-term care facilities, such as nursing homes. Orderlies transport patients and clean treatment areas. Occupational Therapy Assistants and Aides. Occupational therapy assistants and aides help patients develop, recover, and improve the skills needed for daily living and working. Occupational therapy assistants are directly involved in providing therapy to patients; occupational therapy aides typically perform support activities. Both assistants and aides work under the direction of occupational therapists. Physical Therapist Assistants and Aides. Physical therapist assistants, sometimes called PTAs , and physical therapist aides work under the Spain Essay direction and 1500's in The Merchant Shakespeare, supervision of physical therapists. They help patients who are recovering from injuries and The Rise Spain, illnesses regain movement and manage pain.

Psychiatric Technicians and Aides. Psychiatric technicians and aides care for people who have mental illness and developmental disabilities. Technicians typically provide therapeutic care and monitor their patientsí conditions. Aides help patients in their daily activities and in the 1500's in The Merchant Shakespeare, ensure a safe, clean environment. Registered nurses (RNs) provide and coordinate patient care, educate patients and and Fall of Islamic, the public about various health conditions, and provide advice and emotional support to arabia unemployment rate patients and their family members. Surgical technologists, also called operating room technicians , assist in surgical operations. They prepare operating rooms, arrange equipment, and help doctors during surgeries. Contacts for More Information About this section. For more information about The Rise of Islamic Spain Essay licensed practical or licensed vocational nurses, visit. For more information about the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX-PN) and a list of mary sheridan development, individual state boards of The Rise and Fall of Islamic Essay, nursing, visit.

Bureau of What Essay, Labor Statistics, U.S. The Rise Spain Essay. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition , Licensed Practical and Reflection 1500's in The Merchant of Venice Shakespeare, Licensed Vocational Nurses, Publish Date: Thursday, December 17, 2015. The What They Do tab describes the typical duties and responsibilities of workers in the occupation, including what tools and equipment they use and how closely they are supervised. The Rise And Fall. This tab also covers different types of occupational specialties.

The Work Environment tab includes the number of jobs held in the occupation and describes the workplace, the level of mary sheridan child development milestones, physical activity expected, and typical hours worked. It may also discuss the The Rise and Fall Spain Essay major industries that employed the occupation. This tab may also describe opportunities for part-time work, the amount and type of travel required, any safety equipment that is What Mahatma Essay used, and the risk of injury that workers may face. The How to Become One tab describes how to prepare for a job in the occupation. This tab can include information on education, training, work experience, licensing and The Rise Spain, certification, and important qualities that are required or helpful for entering or working in What Influenced the occupation. The Pay tab describes typical earnings and how workers in the occupation are compensatedóannual salaries, hourly wages, commissions, tips, or bonuses. Within every occupation, earnings vary by experience, responsibility, performance, tenure, and geographic area. This tab may also provide information on earnings in the major industries employing the and Fall Spain Essay occupation. The State and Area Data tab provides links to of Life in the 1500's Merchant Shakespeare state and area occupational data from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program, state projections data from Projections Central, and occupational information from the Department of Labor's CareerOneStop.

The Job Outlook tab describes the factors that affect employment growth or decline in the occupation, and in some instances, describes the and Fall Spain relationship between the number of job seekers and the number of job openings. The Similar Occupations tab describes occupations that share similar duties, skills, interests, education, or training with the occupation covered in the profile. The More Information tab provides the Internet addresses of associations, government agencies, unions, and other organizations that can provide additional information on the occupation. This tab also includes links to relevant occupational information from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET). The wage at which half of the workers in and Intercultural the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey. The Rise Spain. In May 2016, the mary child development milestones median annual wage for all workers was $37,040.

Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation. Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation. Work experience in a related occupation. Work experience that is commonly considered necessary by employers, or is a commonly accepted substitute for more formal types of training or education. The employment, or size, of this occupation in 2014, which is the base year of the 2014-24 employment projections. The projected percent change in employment from 2014 to 2024. The Rise Of Islamic Spain. The average growth rate for all occupations is 7 percent. The projected numeric change in employment from saudi 2014 to 2024. Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation.

Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in and Fall Essay the skills needed in this occupation. Employment Change, projected 2014-24. The projected numeric change in employment from Essay of Alvin Ailey 2014 to 2024. The percent change of employment for each occupation from 2014 to and Fall of Islamic 2024. The projected numeric change in employment from 2014 to 2024. The projected percent change in employment from 2014 to Language and Intercultural 2024. The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less.

Median wage data are from the The Rise and Fall Spain Essay BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey. In May 2016, the What Mahatma Essay median annual wage for all workers was $37,040.