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Ban boxing – it#8217;s demeaning and dangerous. A sport whose sole aim is to cause brain damage to another person is not a noble art. It has no place in examples of data, a civilised society, says a leading neuroscientist. (Image: Andrzej Krauze) WHEN the of strict offences 2013 National Football League season kicks off in the US next month, players will have an added layer of protection to go with their helmets and shoulder pads: an independent neurologist at every game to assess them for signs of concussion after receiving a blow to the head. Head injuries are an occupational hazard for of data collection, American footballers and a major issue for the NFL. Thousands of endurance retired players are suing the league for negligence and fraud, claiming that the league knew about the long-term risks but hid them. The condition they fear is chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), previously called punch drunk syndrome, boxer#8217;s dementia or dementia pugilistica. This causes progressive memory problems, personality change and slowness of movement. It afflicts many former sportsmen (it has, until now, been largely men), mostly boxers.

The pathology of CTE is well known. In the 1980s, John Corsellis of the Maudsley Hospital in London documented it in a series of papers, culminating in examples, a 1989 review in tests, the BMJ . He found that many nerve fibres showed evidence of of data collection tearing, with some being completely torn, and on Literary Characters Essay also reported widespread brain degeneration. He also described how many neurons were filled with tangles of protein, one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer#8217;s disease. Examples Of Data. Other researchers later showed that the brains of men with CTE had a second type of examples liability offences protein deposit called amyloid, another hallmark of of data Alzheimer#8217;s. While there is no doubt that these problems are caused by repeated blows to the head, until recently it wasn#8217;t known how. Blows to why is corruption common countries, such the head cause two different kinds of injury. Of Data Collection. The face is cut and bruised by liability offences, direct impacts, but damage to the brain is caused largely by rotational acceleration of the cerebral cortex around the much smaller midbrain and spinal cord. This damage may be aggravated by boxing gloves since they add weight and thus energy to punches, causing more rotational acceleration. Brain tissue is largely a soft mass but the blood vessels within it are fibrous and strong, like wires across cheese.

When the head is hit, especially with a rotational movement, one of of data collection two things can happen. Either a blood vessel can snap, leading to a haemorrhage, or there can be microscopic tearing of the tissue around the full vessel. Large haemorrhages are what cause boxers to fall into comas and occasionally die during bouts, but the microscopic tears to blood vessels can be no less damaging in the long run. The first thing to note is that sportsmen who were frequently injured in this way in their youth often develop characteristic behaviour patterns as they get older. These are the problems often reported in lurid stories about troubled ex-boxers: depression, drug and alcohol abuse and violent tempers. All are consistent with underlying damage to the frontal cortex, which controls executive functions such as impulse control. This is not to say that all ex-sportsmen with these problems have CTE, but it is clear that in some cases it is a contributing factor. What#8217;s more, recent experiments in collection, mice have indicated that protein tangles and amyloid deposits can slowly spread from neuron to neuron. Of Industrialization Essay. The distribution of the tangles in CTE is consistent with this, forming first around blood vessels before spreading. With these findings we can now formulate a plausible hypothesis as to why repeat head injuries to young men in examples of data collection, their teens and 20s lead to personality changes later in adult life and dementia in old age: rotational head injury induces damage, especially around blood vessels, leading to local tangle formation, followed by a slow spread of destruction.

Clearly, considerable effort should be expended in all sports to The Impact of Industrialization Characters minimise head injuries. Soccer has already done the right thing by replacing heavy leather balls with lighter plastic-coated ones. American football appears to be going in the right direction. Of Data Collection. But other sports have some way to go. In ice hockey, the role of the #8220;enforcer#8221;, whose main job appears to be beating up the opposing team#8217;s players, should be abolished. And in of production, all sports where there is of data collection, any risk of Essay head injury – rugby for example – players should be monitored to of data keep an eye on examples liability, the damage. Clearly, all who play and coach these sports should be aware of the risks. Boxing, however, is a special case.

No other sport has the express goal of causing injury to of data the brain. That is certainly the aim of professional boxing. Even in amateur boxing blows to the head are crucial, and protective headgear may not stop injury from The Impact Characters, rotational acceleration. Collection. #147;Boxing is a special case: no other sport has the express goal of why is common african inflicting injury on the brain#148; Corsellis put it best: #8220;My opinion is that the brain should not be the target in any sport, and no amount of juggling with the of data regulations can take away the The Impact of Industrialization on Literary Characters Essay risk. Experienced and outstanding boxers are themselves aware of the risk, difficult as it may be for them eventually to call a halt. Barry McGuigan said #8216;Boxing damages your brain: don#8217;t let anybody tell you different#8217;.#8221; No doubt I will be called a killjoy for espousing the view that boxing should be banned. But it is examples of data collection, worth considering the motives of those who make this charge. Many people profit from boxing, especially the endurance tests promoters and the media who report on fights and then gossip about the later travails of boxers and of data their families.

I would return the examples of strict liability offences charge: nothing can be more killing of joy than personality changes, violence, substance abuse and dementia. I also think it is demeaning as a society for people to get pleasure out of watching others fight and that we should consign this public spectacle, as we have done public executions, to the dustbin of history. More on these topics: John Hardy is a neuroscientist at University College London. Magazine issue 2929, published 10 August 2013. Ballooning size of world#8217;s second-largest refugee camp.

If it isn#8217;t life-threatening, don#8217;t call it cancer.

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Seminar: What Causes Gender Inequality? - A Working Syllabus - SOC-UA 937 – Spring 2017. Robert Max Jackson. In this course we will investigate what causes inequality between women and men . How does it arise, why does it take different forms, why does it vary in examples, degree across societies, what are the scarface full movie free, components that add up to collection, gender inequality, how do various institutions and practices contribute to it, and how does it change? The course will emphasize the why is common, history of gender inequality in the United States.

While we focus on gender inequality, we will also seek to understand social causation more generally. We will explore the diverse ways social causation works and how we can identify the causes behind important social phenomena. click on a topic to go to that section. click on examples of data collection a topic to negative, go to that section. Description – Scope, Organization, and Access: The Scope of the Topics and Materials. We know a lot about gender inequality – its history, how people experience it in their lives, the examples of data, ways it varies in scarface full, intensity and form across time and place, the beliefs that make it seem natural, and examples collection much more. The outpouring of research and commentary on gender inequality over the past half century has been extraordinary.

Unfortunately, despite all this, our understanding of what causes gender inequality remains troubled. Both ordinary people and experts (such as scholars) commonly fluctuate between simplistic explanations that founder under close scrutiny and examples liability offences throwing up their hands in frustration over what can seem an enigma beyond human comprehension. Here we will seek to surmount this dilemma. We will explore diverse facets of gender inequality and varied ideas about what causes might be decisive. We will also look carefully at the ways we can identify and verify the causes of social phenomena. Through these efforts we will aim both to enhance our understanding of what produces gender inequality and to of data collection, improve our general ability to do causal social analyses effectively. The class organization and goals. In this class, each week's work will be organized around an liability offences, analytical task, as well as a set of readings. Rather than focusing on discussion of the readings, the analytical tasks involve attempting a causal analysis of some aspect of gender inequality related to the week's issue, building on the materials we read (in brief papers of a couple pages). The approach in this class seeks to develop analytical skills as well as understandings of the relevant literature by stressing doing actual analyses of gender inequality. (Note: this class does not have an examples of data collection, exam nor a final paper.)

All class meetings are organized as discussions. Of Strict Liability! Part of our class discussions will be on the common readings and examples part on students' efforts to explore the analytical tasks each week. We will adjust the time devoted to these two goals according to negative externality, our experiences over collection the class. Every week, students will initiate discussions on readings and papers. To make this work, each week's papers will be exchanged (electronically) with enough lead time that we can all read all the papers prior to the class meetings. Each topic below includes – beside the common readings – three other subsections. These are: an analytical task , recommended readings , and The Impact of Industrialization on Literary Essay related readings . The analytical task is the examples of data, writing assignment for the week. Everyone should read the common readings while doing the analytical task (and be prepared to endurance, discuss them). In each of these papers – always brief papers – students will try out causal ideas related to the week's topic.

Recommended and related readings are optional materials useful for those who want to dig deeper into a topic. To simplify navigating through the syllabus, these subsections are hidden until the viewer clicks on the subsection heading, then they will appear. Most of our readings will be articles available for downloading. The links will appear in the online version of the course syllabus. Excerpts from Down So Long . . .: The Puzzling Persistence of Gender Inequality (book manuscript by examples collection RMJ not yet published) will similarly be available for downloading from the externality of production, class web site. (As we will read selections from Jackson's book Destined for Equality [Harvard U Press] throughout the course, you might want to buy it or borrow it.) Any student unfamiliar with the study of gender, can (and probably should) pick up the basics from a standard textbook in the area – I recommend Michael Kimmel's Gendered Society (which I use in my basic general undergraduate class on gender, so used copies should be easy to find). For further relevant sources, my reading lists/syllabi for two graduate courses might be valuable.

The one most directly related is What Causes Gender Inequality: Analytical Foundations ; a more general class, What Causes Inequality: Analytical Foundations , may provide materials for broader questions about different kinds of inequalities and examples collection how to think about gender inequality in relationship to them. A note on the hidden material below : Each section of why is african, this guide includes – beside the common readings – three subsections, one for an analytical task , one for recommended readings , and one for related readings . To simplify navigating through the course guide, only the headings for these subsections are initially visible. The contents of all these subsections are hidden (so that the collection, beginning appearance of the examples of strict liability offences, page is similar to collection, a standard syllabus) until the viewer clicks on a subsection heading, then its contents will appear. While this organization is helpful for negotiating the page most of the time, it can become an obstacle if we want to search the endurance, page (for example, for a particular article) as searches will ignore the hidden material (that is, if you search a page you are viewing in collection, an internet browser, the search will only examine what is shown on the page at that time). To overcome this limitation, you can open all the hidden sections to show everything on the page by clicking the § symbol at the top of the page. Liability! (To restore the examples collection, page to the normal condensed view, simply reload the page which will collapse all the hidden sections to their usual look).

The table of contents at the top of this page will aid speedy navigation to any topic, which is particularly helpful if you reveal all the hidden material. I. Introduction. What do we mean by gender inequality? To analyze the causes of gender inequality, we need to muscular tests, know what we mean by examples of data gender inequality. How can we conceive of and Essay talk about gender inequality in ways that are general enough to apply across the range of relevant phenomena, consistent enough to minimize conceptual ambiguities, and precise enough to be analytically effective? Gender inequality has been extraordinarily diverse and wide spread. Women and examples of data collection men are unequal in Essay, every conceivable way in endless circumstances, both immediate and enduring, by both objective criteria and examples of data collection subjective experience.

So, what counts as gender inequality? Can we characterize it in muscular endurance tests, ways that let us confidently and examples of data impartially assess when there is full more or less of it? No task for the introductory meeting. Janet Saltzman Chafetz Feminist Theory and Sociology: Underutilized Contributions for Mainstream Theory Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. Of Data Collection! 23, (1997), pp. Scarface Full! 97-120; or Janet Saltzman Chafetz The Varieties of examples collection, Gender Theory in Sociology Handbook of the Sociology of Gender , 1999, p3-23, 21 Rachel A. Rosenfeld. Muscular! What Do We Learn about of data collection Difference from the Scholarship on Gender? Social Forces , Vol.

81, No. Why Is African Such As Zimbabwe?! 1 (Sep., 2002), pp. 1-24 Destined for Equality : Egalitarian Impulse. II. Examples Of Data! Causality - What are causes, mechanisms, and the like? We casually refer to causes and effects in normal interactions all the time. We all conduct our lives – choosing actions, making decisions, trying to The Impact on Literary, influence others – based on theories about why and how things happen in the world. Examples Of Data! From the free, early stages of childhood we attribute causes, building a vision of the social (and physical) world that makes it understandable.

Every action, every choice about examples collection what to do, is based on our anticipation of its effects, our understandings of consequences. Analytical and scientific reasoning has a similar form, but requires that we approach causation more systematically and self-consciously. The general analytical problem . In this and other societies, women and men commonly dress differently. Scarface Free! Prepare a causal analysis that seeks to explain why women and men dress differently . Our analytical task this week is to attempt a simple causal analysis of a gender difference that is obvious but not often questioned - the way we dress. The purpose of this exercise is to get us thinking about causality. To the degree that we can, we want to examples, try to think of different kinds of examples, causes based on of data collection varied ways of framing the causal question. Realistically, one could easily write a book about all the as zimbabwe?, possible ways of interpreting this causal question and examples answering it. We are just trying to develop some sensible insights in a couple pages. Scarface Movie! Thinking Tools . The starting point of of data collection, most causal analyses is a comparison. When we start with the general question what causes X? we turn it into possible comparisons to produce an answer. Examples of such questions might be why do people in group A do X more than those in group B?, why does X occur more often in why is african countries, such, summer than winter?, or why does the rate at which people do X go up and down with the business cycle?

The underlying idea is simple but powerful. If we are trying to explain some phenomenon, X, then we need to identify variations in the likelihood of X or the rate of X, and look for potential causes that (1) vary across the relevant circumstances in a way that could explain X and (2) that we can connect to the outcomes for X in some way. For example, with the gender distinctive clothing question, some ways to better specify the examples of data collection, question and negative externality look at it through comparisons are: What causes individual conformity to the cultural pattern? What induces women and men to conform to the expectations for dressing differently? Whenever we observe a consistent pattern of social behavior, some common conditions or processes must be inducing people to act in of data, a similar way. Figuring out what encourages conformity and discourages deviance allows us to provide a causal explanation. Think about what happens to people who do not conform to Helping the Homeless, the expectations about male and female appropriate clothing. And, just as important, ask why it is that people punish nonconformists. Here the collection, basic comparison is corruption common in some between people who conform and those who do not, or between the reactions of people to conformity and nonconformity. What causes differences in dress codes across cultures?

What circumstances could exist across societies that consistently produce gender differences in modes of dress? The clothing characteristic of each sex varies greatly across societies (and time). Clothing differs between primitive cultures and modern ones, between warm and collection cold climates, and between different parts of the world. But seemingly everywhere men and women dress differently. How can we explain this pattern? Here the primary comparison is between cultures that have different clothing.

Why do the externality of production, expectations about clothing differences vary by collection context ? Why are gender differences in dress greater in some circumstances than in others? For example, both women and men may wear similar coveralls in corruption common countries,, a factory, but women and men generally wear dramatically different clothing to formal dances. Our efforts to find causes behind any phenomena are improved by looking at collection, variations. If male and female clothing is just a little different in some contexts but greatly different in Essay, others, we can usefully focus on what might produce this variance in gender differences. Here the of data, primary comparison is between contexts with greater differences in the expected clothing and contexts with lesser differences. Muscular Endurance Tests! Thinking Tools 2 . While considering how to of data collection, explain the differences in the ways women and examples liability offences men dress, it can also be helpful to think through ways that this pattern could be considered an example of a larger pattern. The explanation for the broader pattern may be different or easier to develop. For example: The gender differences in apparel (and appearance adjustment more generally) could be considered as one example of apparel differences that find groups defined by collection age, ethnicity, or region dressing differently. That is to say, it is Helping the Homeless Essay not only examples of data women and men who consistently dress differently. Different ways of dressing also distinguish other groups.

If we think about those other groups, does it give us insights into explaining the difference between women's and men's clothing? The gender differences in dress could be considered as one example of a wider range of behavioral differences between women and externality of production men such as rules of proper decorum, speech patterns, or displays of sexuality. That is, we can point to other presentational differences between women and examples of data collection men. If we think about the examples of strict offences, range of these presentational differences, do they suggest ideas that might help explain differences in examples of data collection, apparel? Wikipedia. Causality Richard Hamming, You and endurance Your Research, Bell Communications Research Colloquium Seminar (7 March 1986) Andrew Abbott. The Causal Devolution. Sociological Methods Research November 1998 27: 148-181. Collection! Ernest Nagel. 1960.

Determinism in Helping, History. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 20:3:291-317. Examples Of Data Collection! Lieberson, Stanley; Modeling Social Processes: Some Lessons from Sports Sociological Forum , 12. Liability! March 1997:11-35. III. How is gender inequality symbolized and reproduced in everyday life? To start our investigation of the causes of gender inequality, we will consider how people experience and act out gender in examples of data collection, their day to day lives. We want to think about the most basic questions. Why and when do women and men act differently? Why and when do people respond differently to women than men?

How do all these private individual actions when taken together over time influence the understanding of gender in a culture and gender inequality? The general analytical problem . The Homeless Essay! Using a typical setting where women and of data men meet, assess how Ridgeway's framing approach helps explain the role of Helping the Homeless, gender in these interactions and where it might fall short. For this task, we choose some familiar (to us) setting or type of interaction where women and men typically engage each other. For example, this could be a workplace, a bar, interactions between buyers and sellers, or parties. We use this as our source of examples collection, empirical data and full focus our argument on explaining gender interactions there.

First, we need to of data collection, read Ridgeway's argument carefully. Common In Some African As Zimbabwe?! Then we try to apply her argument to the setting we have chosen. We want to assess how much we believe people's actions (in the context we chose) fit the expectations we can derive from her argument and when they might not. As we work on our analyses, we are evaluating Ridgeway's approach as a tool. The right tool allows us to of data collection, construct a better edifice with less effort; the wrong tool does not. Essay! Thinking tools . Examples Collection! The remaining notes for this analytical task look at some analytical steps that allow us to think through this problem effectively. Systematic steps in corruption african countries, such, the analysis . Doing this kind of thought experiment, we want our thinking to be as systematic as possible. For all systematic causal analyses, we want to consider how the phenomenon being examined varies in regular or predictable ways across conditions, settings, types of people, places, or the like. Then, we ask what conditions or events typically precede or occur along with the outcomes that could plausibly influence those outcomes. For example, first, we simply consider possible differences between men's and women's actions. Then we consider how their actions might differ between opposite-sex and collection same-sex encounters.

We can broaden the range of the externality of production, examples we use to think about these differences by considering other characteristics that might affect interactions, such as the age or race of the of data, people, whether the muscular, interaction is cordial or unfriendly, how well the people know each other, and so on. We want to ask ourselves if the gender aspect of the interaction will be influenced by these other circumstances that seem relevant to interactions. For example, does gender influence cordial interactions differently from the ways it influences confrontations in our setting? If we believe the answer is yes, then we consider how and why. Analogously, we want to think about the examples of data collection, ways that people's goals in gendered interactions vary in corruption, these kinds of circumstances, and how these goals influence their actions.

For example, in the same setting, a person seeking sex will commonly act differently than someone trying to curry favor or sell a product. When we apply a systematic logic to the analysis, we usually do not want to collection, write about all the possibilities we think about. Instead, we use the ones that we find telling. But we will not identify those telling possibilities unless we systematically work through all the relevant possible influences. Gender context . We can take the analysis of interactions another step by considering how the influence of gender on scarface full movie these interactions is potentially affected by conditions like: the presence or absence of onlookers (i.e., the relative privacy of the interaction) or the gender distribution of other people present (i.e., mostly male, mostly female, or mixed) Conformity . Whenever we try to explain patterns like this, we want to of data, consider the exceptions.

When will people violate the implications of gender expectations and what follows when they do? Are there circumstances that make it more likely people will depart from conventional behavior? Violations of norms or common expectations are valuable for causal analyses because cracks in the veneer of movie, social order can reveal its structure and dynamics. Bring it together . After working through the steps above, we try to assess when Ridgeway's approach does a good job explaining how gender influences behavior in our chosen setting, and when her approach seems to fall short. Of Data Collection! Do we see ways that her approach neglects or misunderstands important causes influencing the gender character of behavior in the context we examine? Our central goal here is to explain how and why gender organizes interactions in our chosen example. We are not attempting a general evaluation of Ridgeway's ideas, but a focused assessment of their effectiveness in the setting we have selected to try them out. Erving Goffman, The Arrangement between the Sexes Theory and Society, Vol.

4, No. 3 (Autumn, 1977), pp. 301-331 Deniz Kandiyoti, Bargaining with Patriarchy. Gender and Society , Vol. 2, No. 3 (Sep 1988), pp. 274-290 Cecilia L. Ridgeway, Framed Before We Know It: How Gender Shapes Social Relations. Gender Society 2009 23:145-160 Candace West and Don H. Zimmerman Doing Gender Gender Society 1987 1: 125-151. Cecilia Ridgeway. Framed by Gender . Oxford: 2011. . IV. Why have women apparently occupied a subordinate position in all societies?

And how does explaining the origins of gender inequality relate to explaining the persistence of gender inequality? Although some scholars may question if women have been subordinate in all societies, all agree that men have been dominant in most societies although the degree of The Impact of Industrialization Characters Essay, dominance varies greatly. This raises the very tricky question, how do we explain the prevalence of collection, male dominance? This exceedingly elusive question continues to common african such, elude any answer that will evoke a consensus. Analytical Task Alternative 1: An analytical critique . Examples Of Data Collection! As most of us lack the substantive knowledge needed to develop even simple analyses of gender inequality's possible origins, we will explore the causal possibilities by responding to the arguments of people who are knowledgeable. Please read the tests, Basics of examples of data collection, Causal Descriptions on a separate page for some simple, beginning ideas about describing a causal analysis. Isolate what you believe are the most important causal arguments in the common readings . Give a critical assessment of their different approaches . In doing this, try to pay attention to what it is that makes you find the causal arguments more or less persuasive. The recommended and related readings provide a range of material that you can look at full free, as you need to deepen and collection sharpen your arguments.

It can be helpful to look back at the material from Topic II, especially Gerring's list of criteria for causal arguments. Analytical Task Alternative 2: A hypothetical scenario . When we cannot hope to research a social phenomenon with empirical observations, we can sometimes gain some traction by trying to offences, think through hypothetical possibilities. Here is an example. Assume that sometime in the near future we launch a rocket into space with a crew of 1,000. Collection! This crew is evenly divided between women and men, the women and men have similar credentials and accomplishments, and the Homeless the two sexes are about equally represented at each level of collection, authority. The crew members' cultural understandings are similar to those of college students today. Of Industrialization On Literary Characters Essay! This ship reaches a far away planet much like earth but lacking intelligent life. Unfortunately, the ship's engines have become unstable and the crew must abandon it. So they must start life on this new planet. While they possess much advanced knowledge, they have no technology. They must start from of data collection, scratch, producing food, organizing themselves into a community, pairing off to reproduce, slowly building toward some kind of technological development over generations. [Note: If the distant planet scenario seems unnerving, we could have the same effect by offences dropping a 1,000 people on a remote island that is isolated as a social experiment.] Under these conditions, what are the alternative possibilities for women's status?

What might decide which alternative occurs? Sapolsky, Robert. Examples! Testosterone rules Discover . Chicago: Mar 1997. Vol. 18, Iss. 3; p. 44 Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. (2002). A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of The Behavior Of Women And Men: Implications For The Origins Of Sex Differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. Evolutionary Psychology and muscular similar approaches : The debates over evolutionary psychology - in general and as applied to gender inequality - are very important but often difficult to follow and assess.

Here are some starting points for collection learning the basics. Buller's supplies a sophisticated overview and critique of the most influential paradigm in evolutionary psychology (while supportive of the more general venture), Downes and Walter present guided views of the field, and Helping the Homeless other pieces provide further commentaries and some studies that explore key issues facing this approach. Downes, Stephen M., Evolutionary Psychology, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2014 Edition) Sven Walter, Evolutionary Psychology, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2009 Bolger, Diane. Introduction. In A Companion to collection, Gender Prehistory , edited by Diane Bolger, 1-19. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons, Inc, 2012. [doi:10.1002/9781118294291.ch0] Buller, David J. Evolutionary Psychology: A Critique. In Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology , edited by scarface movie free Elliott Sober. Cambridge, MA: A Bradford Book, 2006. [also, compare David Buller.

A Guided Tour of Evolutionary Psychology (In A Field Guide to the Philosophy of examples of data collection, Mind . Eds. Marco Nani and Massimo Marraffa. Negative Externality! An official electronic publication of the Department of Philosophy of University of Rome 2000.) Also by examples of data collection Buller see: Evolutionary Psychology: The Emperor's New Paradigm, Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (2005): 277-283 and for a full treatment his book Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and the Persistent Quest for Human Nature . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books, 2005.] Fausto-Sterling, Anne. Examples Offences! Beyond Difference: A Biologist's Perspective. Journal of examples collection, Social Issues 53, no. 2 (2010): 233-58. [doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1997.tb02442.x] Goodman, Madeleine J., P. Common Countries, Such! Bion Griffin, Agnes A. Estioko-Griffin, and John S. Examples Of Data! Grove. The Compatibility of Characters Essay, Hunting and examples of data Mothering among the Agta Hunter-Gatherers of the Philippines. Sex Roles 12, no. 11-12 (1985): 1199-209. [doi:10.1007/bf00287829] Rigby, Nichole, and Rob J. Kulathinal. Genetic Architecture of Sexual Dimorphism in of Industrialization Characters Essay, Humans. Journal of Cellular Physiology 230, no.

10 (Oct 2015): 2304-10. [doi:10.1002/jcp.24979] Stulp, Gert, and Louise Barrett. Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Height Variation. Biological Reviews 91, no. 1 (Feb 2016): 206-34. [doi:10.1111/brv.12165] Joseph Henrich. A cultural species: How culture drove human evolution Psychological Science Agenda . Science Brief. 2009 Rosemary L. Of Data! Hopcroft. Gender Inequality in Interaction – An Evolutionary Account. Social Forces 87.4 (2009): 1845-1871. Randall Collins.

A Conflict Theory of Sexual Stratification. Social Problems , Vol. 19, No. 1 (Summer, 1971), pp. 3-21 Rae Blumberg. A General Theory of Gender Stratification. The Homeless Essay! Sociological Theory 2 (1984): 23-101. Rae Blumberg.

Extending Lenski's Schema to Hold Up Both Halves of the Sky.aˆ?A Theory-Guided Way of Conceptualizing Agrarian Societies that Illuminates a Puzzle about Gender Stratification Sociological Theory 22:2 (June 2004):278-291 Matthew H. McIntyre, Carolyn Pope Edwards. The Early Development of Gender Differences Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38 (2009): 83-97 Laurie Wermuth and examples of data collection Miriam Ma'at-Ka-Re Monges. Gender Stratification: A Structural Model for Examining Case Examples of Women in Less-Developed Countries. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 23.1 (2002) 1-22 Randall Collins, Janet Saltzman Chafetz, Rae Lesser Blumberg, Scott Coltrane, Jonathan H. Turner Toward an Integrated Theory of Gender Stratification Sociological Perspectives , Vol. 36, No. 3 (Autumn, 1993), pp. 185-216 Janet Saltzman Chafetz Gendered Power and Privilege: Taking Lenski One Step Further Sociological Theory, Vol.

22, No. 2, Religion, Stratification, and Evolution in Human Societies: Essays in Honor of Gerhard E. Lenski (Jun., 2004), pp. 269-277 Joan N. Huber. Comparative Gender Stratification. Handbook of the Sociology of Gender , 1999, p65-80 Maurice Godelier, The Origins of externality, Male Domination New Left Review , May-June 1981, pp. 3-17 William Tulio Divale, Marvin Harris.

Population, Warfare, and the Male Supremacist Complex. American Anthropologist , New Series, Vol. 78, No. 3 (Sep., 1976), pp. 521-538 [See also: William Divale, Marvin Harris, Donald T. Williams. On the Misuse of of data collection, Statistics: A Reply to Hirschfeld et al. American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol.

80, No. 2 (Jun., 1978), pp. 379-386; William Divale, Marvin Harris. The Male Supremacist Complex: Discovery of a Cultural Invention American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. Endurance Tests! 80, No.

3 (Sep., 1978), pp. 668-671 C C Mukhopadhyay, and P J Higgins. Anthropological Studies of examples, Women's Status Revisited: 1977-1987. Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 17 (1988): 461-495 Naomi Quinn. Anthropological Studies on Women's Status. Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 6 (1977): 181-225 Chris Hann.

Reproduction and Inheritance: Goody Revisited. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. Why Is In Some Countries, Such! 37 (2008): 145-158. V. Examples Collection! What determines men's and women's roles and positions within families? Family and kinship are potentially relevant to gender inequality in varied ways and on Literary Essay a lot of work had pursued such issues. Probably the two most important general issues involve the ways that women and men are unequal within families and the ways that family organization both contributes to and is influenced by gender inequality beyond the family institution.

We will just touch the surface of these issues this week. The general analytical problem . We want to provide an integrated analytical overview of the principal causal arguments about gender inequality and family organization that appear in the common readings. Each of the readings has various causal arguments about family organization, some directly about gender inequality, some relevant to gender inequality but not directly exploring it. Some of the causal questions may receive different causal analyses by these authors. Sometimes two or more authors may use a similar causal approach to explain different causal problems. Of Data! Our goal is to of strict offences, sort this out. Our overviews should be organized around the of data collection, causal arguments, not a series of summaries of what each author wrote (see Thinking Tools). Thinking tools . We want to use one of the following two possible ways to of production, organize the causal assessment (unless one of us has a better way). The first organizes around what is to be explained, the second around the causes. First approach . We start by examples of data identifying the principal causal problems addressed by the group of papers. That is, we figure out what they suggest needs to be explained.

Then, we organize these causal problems in a sensible order (including consideration of some problems potentially being secondary or sub-problems of others). Under each causal problem, we summarize and assess all the relevant explanations found in the readings. Second approach . We start by identifying the principal causal frameworks used in the papers. That is, we figure out what they suggest are the of Industrialization on Literary, conditions or processes that have the most important influence over the outcomes. Examples Of Data! Then, we organize these causal frameworks in common in some countries, as zimbabwe?, a sensible order, taking into account which are entirely different and which might be variations of a similar theme, and which are competing versus complementary. For each of these, after summarizing the causal logic of the framework, we show how it has been used by these authors, describing the range of outcomes the framework is supposed to determine and how it has such effects. Note that regardless which way we organize our analysis of competing causal arguments, it can be valuable to think about not only what is considered by the authors being examine, but also which theoretical questions and which causal frameworks seem relevant but absent. Please reread the Basics of Causal Descriptions on the starting point for examples of data describing a causal analysis. Bringing it together . Endurance Tests! In short, our aim is to produce a critical overview of the of data collection, principal causal arguments concerning the family and gender inequality, starting with the ideas present in the common readings for examples of strict offences this week. To do this effectively, we need to identify all the relevant causal arguments, deduce the logical structure of examples of data, each causal argument and muscular determine how to present that clearly (even if the original source is inconsistent or ambiguous), detect how the causal arguments (from different sources) relate to examples, each other and present them in liability offences, a way that makes those relations clear, and, where possible, summarize the important analytical strengths and of data collection weaknesses of each argument (or facet to an argument). (We should start with the understanding that this kind of analytical overview is rather easy to do poorly and very demanding to do well and thoroughly.

At this stage we are not aspiring to a professional job but hoping to achieve a reasonable, if basic, analysis.) Destined for scarface full movie free Equality : Institutional Individualism: Individualistic Family 157-169 Coltrane, Scott. 1989. Of Data! Household Labor and the Routine Production of The Impact Characters Essay, Gender. Social Problems 3 Stephanie Coontz. The Historical Transformation of of data, Marriage, Journal of Essay, Marriage and Family , Volume 66, Issue 4 (p 974-979) November 2004.

Beth Anne Shelton, Daphne John. The Division of Household Labor. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 22, (1996), pp. Of Data Collection! 299-322 Andrew J. Cherlin, The Deinstitutionalization of corruption in some such as zimbabwe?, American Marriage Journal of of data collection, Marriage and why is corruption in some such as zimbabwe? Family , Volume 66, Issue 4 (p 848-861) November 2004. Kathleen Gerson. Moral Dilemmas, Moral Strategies, and the Transformation of examples of data collection, Gender: Lessons from Two Generations of Work and Family Change Gender Society . Vol. 16 No. 1, February 2002 8-28 Sara B. Common! Raley, Marybeth J. Mattingly, Suzanne M. Bianchi.

How Dual Are Dual-Income Couples? Documenting Change From 1970 to 2001. Journal of Marriage and Family 68:1 (2006), 11-28 Davis, S. N., T. Greenstein and J. G. Marks, Effects of Union Type and Division of Household Labor, Journal of Family Issues 28 (2007):1247-72. [doi: 10.1177/0192513X07300968] Scott Coltrane. Father-Child Relationships and the Status of Women: A Cross-Cultural Study. American Journal of Sociology, 93 (1988): 1060-1095. Joann Vanek. Time Spent in Housework. Scientific American 231 (Nov 1974):116-120.

Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer. The Sociology of examples of data collection, Women's Economic Role in the Family. American Sociological Review , Vol. 42, No. 3 (Jun., 1977), pp. Characters! 387-406 Kathleen Gerson. (2004) 'Understanding work and family through a gender lens', Community, Work Family , 7: 2, 163 - 178 Rodrigo R. Soares, Bruno L. Examples Collection! S. The Homeless Essay! FalcA?A?o. The Demographic Transition and the Sexual Division of examples of data, Labor. The Journal of examples of strict liability offences, Political Economy , Vol. 116, No. 6 (Dec., 2008), pp.

1058-1104 Pennington, Suzanne(2009) 'Bisexuals Doing Gender in Romantic Relationships', Journal of Bisexuality , 9:1, 33-69 Veronica Tichenor. Examples Of Data! Maintaining Men's Dominance: Negotiating Identity and Power When She Earns More. Sex Roles 53:3-4, (2005): 191-205 Becker, G. S., Human Capital, Effort, and the Sexual Division of Labor, Journal of of Industrialization on Literary Characters, Labor Economics 3(1) (1985):33-58. [ VI. What is the role of sex differences in examples of data, the functioning and tests perpetuation of gender inequality? Attempts to examples collection, explain gender inequality at all levels are haunted by essentialism . Essentialist arguments impute distinctive attributes to women and men and attribute the social differences between women's and men's activities, opportunities, statuses, and externality of production roles to these distinct attributes.

Even theoretical analyses of examples of data collection, gender inequality that expressly reject the possibility of consequential, inherent sex differences, commonly build their explanations of inequality on gender differences. To complicate matters, essentialist arguments proclaiming superior attributes for women exist alongside of the arguments proclaiming women inferior. Essay! Moreover, while for collection some, essentialism always means a difference based in biology or genetics, for others it includes cultural differences that are embodied in women and men. The general analytical problem . To investigate how essentialist arguments work, we will examine how different kinds of essentialist arguments might be applied to explain some aspect of corruption common african, gender inequality, in contrast to a non-essentialist argument. We aim to see both the attraction of essentialist arguments and the possibilities for alternatives. Select one form or facet of examples collection, gender inequality that you will try to explain for Helping the Homeless this task.

This instance or aspect of gender inequality should be sufficiently important, widespread, and enduring or recurring to merit thoughtful theory and explanation. Collection! It should also be narrow or specific enough that the Characters, goal of explaining it is plausible. For example, the facet might be that wives commonly defer to husbands. For the collection, selected type or aspect of gender inequality, you will suggest five alternative explanations, each one representing a different approach to explaining such social phenomena. The explanations should be succinct but clear. They should also be plausible to the extent that a reasonable person might make such an argument. Plausible does not mean true, of course. Rather, we are trying to imagine an argument that would seem plausible to people who are advocates for each of the why is common countries, such, perspectives. The five types of explanation . Examples Collection! Attempt to of strict offences, devise the best explanations you can for the relevant facet of inequality from each of the examples collection, following perspectives.

Explanations may be categorized in many ways. The five perspectives defined here are meant to examples liability, engage different responses to the problem of essentialism. Direct biological - Devise an explanation claiming that some biological difference between the sexes produces the relevant aspect of inequality by making women and men act differently. For example, an collection, argument might be that men are stronger than women so men dominate women as a simple result of superior strength. (More complex biological explanations might be derived from evolutionary psychology.) This type of explanation is usually purely essentialist. Note that this type of explanation can be divided further into those relying on real biological differences and those imputing fictional biological differences.

Let us stress biological differences that are at least potentially real here, leaving the fictitious ones for below. Indirect biological - Formulate an Helping the Homeless, explanation claiming some biological difference does not directly produce the inequality, but the of data, biological difference has important effects or implications of some sort, and those effects that make likely or unavoidable the why is corruption common african countries, as zimbabwe?, emergence or persistence of the selected aspect of gender inequality. For example, someone might argue that women's child bearing makes them anxious about the welfare of of data, their children, and that anxiety makes them feel weak and in want of a protector, leading them to defer to husbands. Or, others might suggest that women's biologically induced child rearing orientation encourages both women and men to make men responsible for warfare, and that men's resulting skill at combat, their possession of movie, weapons, and men's organization around mutual defense leaves wives typically in their husbands' control. The key for this type of explanation is of data collection that the of Industrialization Characters Essay, relevant biological differences do not directly cause the gender inequality being explained, but have effects on examples social behavior and of Industrialization Characters Essay social organization that lead to gender inequality. These types of explanations have essentialist origins in examples of data collection, a biological difference, but the explanation as a whole may invoke mediating causal influences that reduce the essentialist quality, sometimes greatly. Non-biological sex difference - Suggest how some socially constructed difference between women and men – one that is Helping the Homeless Essay neither biological nor a direct result of examples, biological differences – initiates or preserves the why is corruption common in some african, aspect of gender inequality being explained. This will usually be an enduring individual characteristic (a difference that people carry with them, not a difference in their circumstances). For example, one might claim that women are fearful and dependent because of socialization processes (that have no biological basis), and of data this psychological condition induces wives to defer to muscular tests, their husbands. Or, one might argue that childhood sports available only to boys result in a higher competitive drive that accounts for adult men's greater success in business.

This type of of data collection, explanation claims a real difference exists between women and men (in the society or social context where the inequality being explained occurs; the relevant sex difference need not exist in all or any other society or social context), but this difference is a social construction. This type of explanation often becomes redundantly circular: each aspect of inequality exists as a result of inequality, and that overall inequality is constituted by Helping the Homeless Essay the various aspects. Fictitious sex difference - An imputed sex difference that does not really exist is of data collection claimed to play a significant role in producing the selected facet of gender inequality. For example, someone might suggest that although women have no better capacity for child rearing, people commonly assume they do because women bear children, and that this false expectation produces a division of labor and power favoring men. This type of explanation focuses on the consequences of beliefs, relying on externality of production the observation that beliefs can organize behavior even if they are false beliefs. While such fictitious differences are commonly assumed to of data collection, be biological, they need not be. Causes independent of sex differentiation - A causal process that does not involve any difference between the sexes is argued to scarface movie free, produce the inequality being considered.

For example, some might argue that for families to fulfill their social functions effectively, they need one spouse/parent to perform the of data, critical emotional actions needed and the other spouse/parent to perform the practical and leadership actions (this is in some african countries, such as zimbabwe? essentially a well-know idea of Talcott Parsons). This role differentiation can then result in spouse inequality, as an indirect and examples of data unintended consequence. Common African Countries, Such As Zimbabwe?! This category includes highly diverse explanations, the one critical similarity among them being that they do not rely on examples collection a sex difference in their central causal argument. It may be worth noting that one reason explanations based on sex differences (including all the preceding perspectives) are more common is that formulating a plausible analysis that forgoes the mechanism of sex differences is often a hard task. (Note, in this task we are aiming to produce explanations that those advocating each of the above types of explanation would think are reasonable. It is the Homeless often hardest to conceive good explanations from the points of of data collection, view we find unconvincing or unappealing, but the capacity to common in some such as zimbabwe?, do this is a valuable skill.) Bringing it together . The point of of data, this exercise is to examine how it is possible to devise a range of alternative causal explanations of examples liability, gender inequality stressing some mechanism of sex differences, while developing alternative theories that do not rely on sex differences is rather hard. The difference arguments run the full range from examples of data, being directly and fully biological to relying on non-biological or fictitious differences in indirect ways.

The arguments that exclude not only movie free biology but all dependence on sex differences commonly derive from another theoretical approach, such as functionalism or conflict theories. The challenge with these approaches is not only to examples of data collection, make the immediate causal process eschew differences, but to avoid relying on sex differences one or two steps earlier in the causal chain. Uri Gneezy, Kenneth L. Leonard, And John A. Externality! List. Gender Differences in Competition: Evidence From a Matrilineal and a Patriarchal Society. Econometrica, Vol.

77, No. 5 (September, 2009), 1637-1664 Review : Section II Common Readings above and the DeLamater and Hyde piece from of data collection, Section VI. Douglas Schrock, Michael Schwalbe. Helping! Men, Masculinity, and of data collection Manhood Acts. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 35: 277-295 (August 2009). [doi: 10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115933] Janis S. Bohan. Regarding gender: Essentialism, Constructionism, and Feminist Psychology.

Psychology of Women Quarterly , Mar 93, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p5-22 Matthew H. McIntyre, Carolyn Pope Edwards. The Early Development of Gender Differences. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 83-97 (October 2009) Wood, W., Eagly, A. Of Strict Liability! H. Examples! (2002). A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of The Behavior Of Women And Men: Implications For The Origins Of Sex Differences. Corruption Common Countries, Such As Zimbabwe?! Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. [doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.128.5.699] Nancy Chodorow. Oedipal Asymmetries and Heterosexual Knots. Social Problems , Vol. 23, No.

4, Feminist Perspectives: The Sociological Challenge (Apr., 1976), pp. 454-468. Eagly, A. H., Wood, W. (1999). Examples Collection! The Origins Of Sex Differences In Human Behavior: Evolved Dispositions Versus Social Roles. American Psychologist, 54, 408-423. Valian, V. (1999). The Cognitive Bases Of Gender Bias.

Brooklyn Law Review, 65, 1037-1061. Clopton, Nancy A.; Sorell, Gwendolyn T. Gender differences in moral reasoning. . Psychology of Women Quarterly, Mar93, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p85 [doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1993.tb00678.x] Pamela L. Geller. Identity and Difference: Complicating Gender in externality of production, Archaeology. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 65-81 (October 2009) [doi: 10.1146/annurev-anthro-091908-164414] Barbara J. Risman, Intimate Relationships from a Microstructural Perspective: Mothering Men. Gender and Society 1:1 (March 1987).

Nancy Chodorow. Mothering, Object-Relations, and the Female Oedipal Configuration. Feminist Studies , Vol. 4, No. 1 (Feb., 1978), pp. Of Data Collection! 137-158 [jstor: 3177630] Timothy J. Biblarz Judith Stacey. How Does the Gender of Parents Matter? Journal of Marriage and Family 72:1 (2010):3-22 [doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00678.x] Adrienne Rich. Externality! 1980.

Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence. Signs: Journal of of data, Women in Culture and Society 5 (4): 631-660 Judith Butler. Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in in some countries, as zimbabwe?, Phenomenology and Feminist Theory. Theatre Journal , Vol. Examples Of Data! 40, No. 4 (Dec., 1988), pp. 519-531. Nussbaum, M. C. Essay! The Professor Of Parody [J. Butler]. The New Republic v. 220 no. 8 (February 22 1999) p. 37-45.

Timothy V. Kaufman-Osborn. Fashionable Subjects: On Judith Butler and the Causal Idioms of Postmodern Feminist Theory. Examples! Political Research Quarterly , Vol. 50, No. 3 (Sep., 1997), pp.

649-674 Veronica Vasterling. Butler's Sophisticated Constructivism: A Critical Assessment. Hypatia , Vol. Why Is Countries, Such! 14, No. 3 (Summer, 1999), pp. 17-38 Barbara F. Reskin.

Including Mechanisms in Our Models of examples of data collection, Ascriptive Inequality. Muscular! American Sociological Review, Vol. 68, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21. VII. What is the collection, role of sexuality? Sexuality has been evoked in multiple ways in the study of gender inequality.

Some have considered it as a possible motivating cause for inequality, others have explored how gender inequality can mold the experience and practice of sexuality, and others have tried to theoretically incorporate sexuality as a peculiar tension between women and men that mediates both the causes and effects of gender inequality. Essentially, everyone recognizes sexuality is critically important to common in some african countries,, gender inequality, but we lack agreement or clarity on examples of data collection how it matters. The general analytical problem . Focusing on heterosexual behavior, it appears that men seek to examples liability, have sex with women much more than women seek to have it with men, relative both to how often they have sex and with how many partners . Our central task this week is to propose causal accounts that plausibly explain this. Give a brief account of possible explanations from the following perspectives. In each case, describe a plausible approach (accepting the assumptions of the perspective), then assess its strengths and weaknesses.

Evolutionary Psychology - Trying to explain this phenomenon (well, part of it) has been a highlight of the work that evolutionary psychologists have done on gender differences. Provide an appropriate brief explanation of this sort, identify the fundamental assumptions it requires. Also, consider the evidence and what might be important shortcomings. Indirect biological - Formulate an explanation claiming some biological difference does not directly produce the inequality, but the biological difference has important effects or implications of some sort, and those effects that make likely or unavoidable the emergence and persistence of examples of data collection, this sexuality difference. Also, consider under what social conditions this sexual difference should be larger or smaller, assuming that this explanation is correct. Why Is Corruption Common African Such! A Fictional Difference - Try to explain how this purported difference in sexuality might not be real. This includes explaining why the fictional belief in this difference would arise and examples of data collection become prevalent. Secondary effect of corruption common in some african such as zimbabwe?, gender inequality - Consider how this difference can arise as a result of gender inequality. Examples! Examine what social conditions must be true for this causal sequence to occur. A different approach - What plausible explanation can you provide that does not fit into the above categories?

Can you provide reasoning or evidence to show that one of the explanations is better than the Helping the Homeless, others? Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to construct and assess alternative basic causal arguments seeking to understand a widely accepted difference in the sexuality of of data collection, women and men. In each case, try to be clear about the logic of the causal argument. In each case, provide a logical description of the mechanisms that link the causes to The Impact on Literary Essay, the outcomes. Alternative Analytical Task [ignore]

The general analytical problem . Our central task this week is to propose a causal account that plausibly explains the examples of data, relationship between one aspect of corruption common in some african such, sexuality and gender inequality. Everyone who analyzes gender inequality considers sexuality important, but they have highly varied ideas about examples what matters and why. This disagreement suggests that the externality of production, underlying problems are difficult. We cannot hope to solve them in this brief effort. So, our aim is to propose a simple and reasonable account of examples collection, some part of the relationship between inequality and full sexuality. We are not trying to develop a full, professional analysis. We also want to consider how our proposed accounts agree with, differ from, or challenge the existing scholarly arguments. Again, our goal here is limited. The aim is to give a reasonable first sense of how the proposed account fits (or does not fit). Thinking tools As suggested above, we can use any aspect of sexuality that seems interesting. However, it may help if the selected facet of sexuality: has a relationship to gender inequality that at least some writers think is important.

Which way it is examples important is negative wide open. The role of the chosen sexuality characteristic relative to gender inequality may be cause, effect, catalyst, or whatever else seems causally relevant. allows discussion of relevant ideas from at least three scholarly works. Examples Collection! These may be part of the common readings, any of the other readings recommended here, or another legitimate source. This doesn't mean that the texts must directly discuss the specific relationship we write about, but that they include ideas or arguments which we can apply or to which we can respond. A basic approach to the task presentation might have the following three parts: First, we lay out the causal, explanatory problem. What are the outcomes, patterns, processes, or relationships that we would like to explain by identifying reasonable causes? And why is this important enough to merit attention? (The latter part may seem self-evident, but we still want to describe why we think explaining the negative of production, phenomenon is of data important.) Second, we provide the causal analysis. We want to be as complete as possible within reasonable space limits. And, we want to be clear, simple, and direct. Third, we try to of strict liability, show how our proposed causal analysis relates to of data, the existing literature. For our purposes, we can limit ourselves to scarface movie, considering a couple theories or perspectives that would support or compliment our approach and a couple that would be likely to question our proposed causal analysis. Collection! (In a professional effort, we would need to consider every important relevant argument.) These may come from the common readings or any other relevant scholarship.

When discussing those who might disagree, we want to Helping, be as specific as possible about what criticism we would expect from each of these opponents and examples of data how we might respond. Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to examples of strict liability offences, construct a basic causal argument seeking to understand how some aspect of sexuality is related to examples of data, gender inequality, and to Essay, assess how that causal argument relates to the existing literature (as represented in our readings). Zaylia, Jessica Leigh(2009) 'Toward a Newer Theory of Sexuality: Terms, Titles, and the Bitter Taste of Bisexuality', Journal of Bisexuality , 9 (2): 109 - 123. Crawford, M., et. al., Sexual Double Standards: A Review and Methodological Critique of Two Decades of Research. The Journal of Sex Research v. 40 no. 1 (February 2003) p. 13-26 Dennis D. Of Data Collection! Waskul, Phillip Vannini, Desiree Wiesen. Women and Their Clitoris: Personal Discovery, Signification, and Use. Symbolic Interaction May 2007, Vol. 30, No. 2: 151-174 Breanne Fahs.

Compulsory Bisexuality?: The Challenges of Modern Sexual Fluidity. Journal of examples liability offences, Bisexuality , Volume 9, Issue 3 4 July 2009 , pages 431-449 John A. Miller, Joan Acker, Kate Barry, Miriam M. Johnson and Lois A. West. Collection! Comments on externality of production MacKinnon's 'Feminism, Marxism, Method, and the State'. Signs , Vol. 10, No. 1 (Autumn, 1984), pp. 168-184; [jstor: 3174252; and Catharine A. MacKinnon, Reply to examples of data collection, Miller, Acker and Barry, Johnson, West, and Gardiner. Signs , Vol. 10, No. Of Industrialization Characters Essay! 1 (Autumn, 1984), pp. 184-188 [jstor: 3174253] Steven Epstein.

An Incitement to of data, Discourse: Sociology and the History of Sexuality . Sociological Forum , Vol. 18, No. 3 (Sep., 2003), pp. 485-502. Nicole Constable. The Commodification of Intimacy: Marriage, Sex, and examples Reproductive Labor.

Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 49-64 (2009) Impett, E. Examples Of Data! A., Peplau, L. A. (2003). Sexual Compliance: Gender, Motivational, And Relationship Perspectives. Journal of Sex Research, 40(1), 87-100 [doi: 10.1080/00224490309552169] Ronald Weitzer. Sociology of Sex Work. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. Negative Externality! 35: 213-234 (2009) Pennington, Suzanne(2009) 'Bisexuals Doing Gender in Romantic Relationships', Journal of of data, Bisexuality, 9: 1, 33-69 Lisa Duggan From Instincts to Politics: Writing the History of Sexuality in the U.S. The Journal of Sex Research , Vol. 27, No. 1, Feminist Perspectives on Sexuality. Part 1 (Feb., 1990), pp.

95-109 Michael W. Wiederman. The Truth Must Be in Here Somewhere: Examining the Gender Discrepancy in Self-Reported Lifetime Number of Sex Partners. The Journal of why is corruption african such, Sex Research, Vol. 34, No. 4 (1997), pp. 375-386 Norman R. Brown, Robert C. Sinclair.

Estimating Number of Lifetime Sexual Partners: Men and of data Women Do It Differently. Muscular Endurance! The Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 36, No. 3 (Aug., 1999), pp. 292-297 John Levi Martin, Matt George. Theories of Sexual Stratification: Toward an Analytics of the Sexual Field and of data collection a Theory of Sexual Capital. Sociological Theory, Vol. 24, No. Externality Of Production! 2 (Jun., 2006), pp.

107-132 Judith Treas, Deirdre Giesen. Sexual Infidelity among Married and Cohabiting Americans. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Feb., 2000), pp. 48-60 Blow, Adrian J.; Hartnett, Kelley. Infidelity In Committed Relationships II: A Substantive Review . Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, Volume 31, Issue 2, (2005): 217-33. Lever, J., Frederick, D., Peplau, L. A. (2006). Of Data Collection! Does Size Matter? Men's And Women's Views On Penis Size Across The Life Span.

Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 7(3), 129-143. VIII. What is the role of violence and intimidation in the relationships between men and women? Most theoretical approaches to gender inequality suggest that violence between women and men plays a role in sustaining inequality; some also point toward violence as an initial cause. A recurring issue concerns the degree to which violence is an expression or result of gender inequality or, alternatively, is corruption in some as zimbabwe? a cause of examples of data, inequality. The separate roles of rape, harassment, and Helping the Homeless Essay domestic violence, and their relationships to each other are another critical question. Much research and argument has also been focused on of data the question of women's aggressive impulses and actions. Analytical Task : Try to negative, develop a reasonable explanation for of data why women do not engage in sexual harassment or sexual violence at rates similar to negative, those of men.

Here, our strategy is to reverse the usual way people approach the problem of gender violence, aiming to explain the (suppressed) rates for of data women rather than the (elevated) rates for men. In addition to muscular endurance tests, the reading materials, consider carefully the pointers below in the sections on Thinking Tools and Well Formed Causal Arguments In short , taking into examples collection account the pointers below and the ideas in the materials we have read up to muscular endurance tests, this point, you want to examples collection, develop a reasonable explanation why women do not engage in harassment or violence toward men at the rates that men do toward women. Thinking Tools: ( click to open ) To pursue this task, we need to consider what we mean by violence or aggression. When people refer to the patterns of violence between women and men (in modern societies), they are usually referring to tests, several kinds of collection, aggressive behavior, particularly: (1) sexual violence (especially rape), (2) sexual harassment, and (3) intimate partner violence (which includes wife battering). These three categories implicitly distinguish patterns of aggression based on Essay several criteria: (1) the degree to which the aggressive acts involve sexuality, (2) the of data collection, severity of the aggressive acts, and (3) the existing relationship between the relevant men and women. In simple terms, the Characters, aggressive actions in these three categories have two obvious potential relationships with gender inequality: (1) inequality produces them, and (2) they reinforce gender inequality. These actions are especially linked to inequality by the ways they contribute to women’s fears and sense of physical vulnerability. That fear is crucial. Of Data Collection! For it is the prospect of liability, possible violence that induces women to restrict their behavior, to examples of data collection, seek male protectors, and to heed men’s wishes.

The fear of violence is commonly a more prevalent and effective mechanism of control than the experience of violence. Note, however, that we cannot assume that sexual violence would not exist in the absence of gender inequality (although we might wish to examine this as a hypothesis). Corruption In Some As Zimbabwe?! We know, for example, that partner violence occurs in gay male and lesbian couples at of data collection, rates comparable to those of heterosexual couples. To put it differently, we have good evidence for inferring that gender inequality is a contributory cause for sexual violence, but not for the claim that it is a necessary cause. Similarly, we must be wary of simply assuming that sexual violence leads to gender inequality. To simplify our task, we will set aside the scarface, question of examples of data, intimate partner violence and focus on the other two kinds mentioned above, sexual violence and sexual harassment. So, our goal is to examples liability, explain why women, seemingly, indulge less often in sexual violence and harassment toward men than the reverse . We can also note that one analytical starting point to explaining such differences would be to decompose the possible causes into two possible types that raise different causal questions: Women and men may resort to violence and harassment at different rates under comparable circumstances.

This would lead us ask what conditions, expectations, or the like cause women and men to act differently. Women and men may face the conditions that induce or allow violence and harassment at different rates. Examples Of Data Collection! This would lead us to ask how and why women and men find themselves at different rates in circumstances that promote aggression toward the other sex. [Both men and women vary greatly, so we must decide if we will abstract away all that variation (and thus talk of men or women in the most generic or abstract possible manner) or if we feel that some variations (e.g. Helping The Homeless! wealth or age) require consideration for the analysis. Examples! Remember that you can restrict the examples of strict offences, scope of your analysis.] Try to examples of data collection, approach the problem of defining potential causes as systematically as you can. For example, consider a list of potential determinants that might reasonably include beliefs, resources, opportunities, the anticipated consequences of alternative actions.

Another way to look at it is the old detective's script: motives, means, opportunity. The key here is to avoid randomly attaching yourself to of production, one or two possible causes, just because they happen to examples collection, be what you first think about. You want to common in some as zimbabwe?, think seriously about what you might have neglected. It is often useful to of data, start this kind of movie free, analytic reasoning concretely, concentrating on circumstances we know best. Of Data Collection! We think about the kinds of people we know best, either through personal experience or from studying them.

We ask ourselves why the women in these circumstances or groups do not engage in sexual harassment or sexual violence toward men as much as do men toward women. If we can gain an common in some countries, as zimbabwe?, explanatory foothold in these familiar circumstances, we have a starting point for developing a more general explanation. Also, try to introduce appropriate connections between the argument(s) you present and the readings. Consider not only the common readings from this week, but also past readings and optional ones from this week that seem particularly relevant. The causal arguments should try to collection, conform to Helping the Homeless, the standards for a good causal argument that we have read about and examples of data discussed. Among other things this means: The causal analysis should clearly state what is being explained. The analysis should describe the examples of strict liability, social mechanisms linking causes to examples of data, effects. Corruption Common In Some African Countries, Such As Zimbabwe?! It should show what happens in collection, the world that produces the outcomes, what kinds of people or organizations behave in manner, what circumstances arise that induce the relevant behavior, and so forth.

This may be abstract at the level of the causal model. The analysis should consider why the decisive causes exist and take the form that they do. That is, the causal analysis should push back at least one step past the causes being invoked to ask what causes them. A strong analysis will consider what alternative causal arguments could be made (i.e., how the causal processes could be different from what you describe) and show what evidence or logic favors the of production, argument you have presented. Of Data! A thorough causal analysis will recognize that other causal models might be considered plausible, and try to compare the externality of production, causal model being promoted to the alternatives. The analysis should consider the generalizability of the the arguments presented. It should consider to what periods, places, types of societies, parts of society, kinds of social relationships or interactions do the arguments apply? Most will find it difficult to do all of the above effectively, so consider these to be suggestions about what would be ideal, then apply your judgment about of data collection allocating your time and effort.

Try to develop a clear causal analysis of the role played in Helping, gender inequality by a fear of violence. This analysis should include a causal explanation why fear of (gender related) violence exists within a system of gender inequality. While thinking through how to explain this fear, you might consider comparisons or circumstances under which these fears vary, including Women's fears vs. men's fears The circumstances under which women experience greater fear and those where they feel safe Differences in the amount of fear typical amongst groups or categories of of data, women according to their age, affluence, location, companions, or any other relevant social condition Differences in scarface movie free, the distribution of examples, fear across societies distinguished by such conditions as forms of economic and Essay political organization, degree of development, prevailing religious or cultural institutions and the like This analysis should also include a causal explanation of the consequences for gender inequality of the distribution of collection, fears of violence. In what ways do fears of examples of strict liability offences, violence influence the behavior of women or the relationships between women and examples collection men? Consider how such fears may affect various kinds of women under various circumstances. But remember to return to aggregate effects – it is the impact of these fears on the pattern of women's experiences and behavior that affects gender inequality writ large. Scarface Movie! Avoid the examples, analytic temptation to argue as if equality might imply an absence of discord and aggression. Externality Of Production! Realistically, equality between two groups by itself only leads us to expect that acts of aggression will occur with equal frequency and effect between members of the two groups.

Removing inequality as a source of examples of data, discord should reduce one kind of frustration that motivates aggression. Other sources of discord still exist, however, and some forms of aggression that could be suppressed by negative externality of production inequality might even rise. Archer, J. (2002). Sex Differences In Physically Aggressive Acts Between Heterosexual Partners: A Metaanalytic Review. Aggression Violent Behavior, 7(4), 313-351. [doi: 10.1016/S1359-1789(01)00061-1] Saguy, Abigail C. Employment Discrimination or Sexual Violence?: Defining Sexual Harassment in American and examples of data French Law. Law Society Review.

34:4 (2000):1091-1128. also see Saguy, Abigail C. What is Sexual Harassment? From Capitol Hill to the Sorbonne, Thomas Jefferson Law Review , 27:45, (2005):45-56. Manuel Eisner. Long-Term Historical Trends in Violent Crime. Crime and Justice , Vol. 30, (2003), pp. 83-142 Malcolm M. Feeley, Deborah L. Little. The Vanishing Female: The Decline of Women in the Homeless, the Criminal Process, 1687-1912. Law Society Review , Vol. Examples Collection! 25, No. 4 (1991), pp.

719-758 Quinn, Beth A. The Impact On Literary Essay! Sexual Harassment and Masculinity: The Power and Meaning of of data collection, 'Girl Watching.' Gender Society , vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 386-402, June 2002 Rachel Bridges Whaley, The Paradoxical Relationship between Gender Inequality and Rape: Toward a Refined Theory. Gender Society , vol. 15, no.

4, pp. Why Is Corruption Common Countries, As Zimbabwe?! 531-555, Aug 2001 [doi: 10.1177/089124301015004003] Murray A. Straus. 2008. Dominance and examples symmetry in partner violence by male and female university students in 32 nations. Children and Helping Youth Services Review 30(3):252-275.

Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. (2002). Examples! A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of endurance tests, women and men: Implications for examples of data collection the origins of sex differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. [note: also recommended for previous section] Sarah K. Murnen, Carrie Wright, and Gretchen Kaluzny. If 'Boys Will Be Boys,' Then Girls Will Be Victims? A Meta-Analytic Review of the why is in some such, Research That Relates Masculine Ideology to Sexual Aggression. Sex Roles Volume 46, Numbers 11-12 / June, 2002 Peggy Reeves Sanday. Rape-Prone Versus Rape-Free Campus Cultures.

Violence Against Women, Vol. 2, No. 2, 191-208 (1996) [doi: 10.1177/1077801296002002006] Quinn, Beth A. Sexual Harassment and Masculinity: The Power and examples collection Meaning of Helping, 'Girl Watching.' Gender Society , vol. Examples Of Data! 16, no. 3, pp. 386-402, June 2002.

Linda Gordon. Family Violence, Feminism, and Helping Essay Social Control. Feminist Studies, Vol. Collection! 12, No. 3 (Autumn, 1986), pp. 453-478 Christopher Uggen Amy Blackstone. Sexual Harrasment as a Gendered Expression of Power.

American Sociological Review , Volume 69, Number 1, (February 2004): 64-92 Sandy Welsh. Gender And Sexual Harassment. Annual Review of Sociology 25 (1999): 169-190 Lee Ellis and Charles Beattie. The Feminist Explanation for negative of production Rape: An Empirical Test. T he Journal of examples, Sex Research , Vol.

19, No. 1 (Feb., 1983), pp. 74-93 Kimberly Martin, Lynne M. Vieraitis and Sarah Britto. Gender Equality and Women's Absolute Status: A Test of the Feminist Models of Rape. Violence Against Women . 12 (4) 2006: 321-339 Gwen Hunnicutt. Varieties of muscular tests, Patriarchy and Violence Against Women Resurrecting Patriarchy as a Theoretical Tool. Violence Against Women . 15 (5) 2009: 553 - 573 [doi: 10.1177/1077801208331246] Tom W. Smith. The Polls: Gender and examples Attitudes Toward Violence. The Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 48, No. 1 (Spring, 1984), pp.

384-396 [jstor: 2748632] Richard C. Eichenberg. Gender Differences In Public Attitudes Toward The Use Of Force By The United States, 1990-2003. International Security 28.1 (2003) 110-141 Jon Hurwitz and Shannon Smithey, Gender Differences on why is common african Crime and Punishment. Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 51, No. Of Data! 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 89-115 Joan B. Kelly Michael P. Johnson. Differentiation Among Types Of Intimate Partner Violence: Research Update And Implications For Interventions. Family Court Review, Volume 46, Issue 3, 2008 (p 476-499) [doi: 10.1111/j.1744-1617.2008.00215.x] Richard B. Felson, Alison C. Why Is Corruption In Some Countries, Such! Cares.

Gender and the Seriousness of Assaults on examples collection Intimate Partners and why is such Other Victims. Journal of Marriage and Family, Volume 67, Issue 5 (2005):1182-1195 Murray A. Straus and Ignacio Luis Ramirez. 2007. Gender Symmetry In Prevalence, Severity, And Chronicity Of Physical Aggression Against Dating Partners By University Students In Mexico And USA. Aggressive Behavior 33:281-290. [doi: 10.1002/ab.20199] Russell P. Dobash and examples collection R. Emerson Dobash. Women's Violence to Men in examples of strict, Intimate Relationships. The British Journal of Criminology 44 (2004): 324-349 [doi: 10.1093/bjc/azh026] IX. Of Data Collection! How has the economy influenced men's and full movie women's positions in society? Analyses of gender inequality attribute great importance to examples collection, the economy.

Gender inequality appears everywhere embedded in economic inequality, in the sense that a critical aspect of gender inequality involves unequal access to scarface movie, economic resources and positions. This relationship becomes clearer in more advanced societies where economic organization has become institutionally differentiated from kinship and political organization. Sometimes this unequal economic access is understood as an expression of gender inequality, sometimes a cause of gender inequality, sometimes a result. Many analyses consider it all three. Analytical Task 1: Develop a causal analysis of economic inequality between women and examples collection men that accounts for two empirical observations, one being the earnings inequality between the sexes by full movie free the gender composition of major occupational categories, the other being the examples, changing likelihood that wives will earn more than their husbands. The data to be explained can be found in three tables (click to see).

Use the tabs at the bottom to switch between tables. The first table shows the 2012 earnings gap in the 20 occupational categories that have the why is corruption common in some african countries,, largest number of females. These have been sorted by the proportion female. The numbers in dark red show the examples of data, earnings gap where women also account for why is common in some african countries, two-thirds or more of the those in the occupational category. The second table shows the same kind of of data collection, data as the movie free, first, but is for the 20 occupational categories that have the largest number of males. It is otherwise the same as the first table, except the dark red numbers are for occupational categories where two-thirds or more of the workers are male. The third table shows the changing proportion of married couples where the examples, wife earns more than the husband over the 25 years up to 2011.

Preliminary to developing an analysis, the corruption common african, first task is, of course, to examples of data collection, interpret what the data in the tables tell us about economic inequality between women and men. It is recommended that you focus on free the dark red numbers of all the tables. Of Data Collection! The first two tables are meant to be interpreted as one. The main task is to develop a background analysis of gender inequality in the economy, as it exists today and how it has changed over the past several decades. This may lead you to considering longer term changes to explain conditions during this period. You might think of yourself as writing a textbook or preparing a background paper on gender inequality in the economy, where these tables are the data that is being presented. Your goal is to offer an externality of production, understanding of these tables. Examples Of Data! One way to think about Helping the Homeless this is in terms of what we don't see in the tables.

Why aren't women and men distributed equally across these occupational categories? Why are women's earnings lower? Why do the difference between women's and men's earning vary across the occupational categories? Why has the proportion of wives earning more than their husbands gone up? What are the implications of the earnings differentials by occupational categories?

What are the implications of the data on wives' earnings? How can we reconcile the data on wives' earnings with the data on occupational earnings differences? In short, we are aiming at a brief explanation of women's vs. Of Data! men's economic participation today and over time that shows why we find data looking like this. Analytical Task 2 [ignore Fall 13] Identify three of the most important, primary, explanatory problems that need solution to understand the relationship between the economy and gender inequality . Each way that some aspect of gender inequality influences economic organization implies a causal problem. Similarly, in the reverse, each way that economic organization influences some aspect of gender inequality implies a causal problem. For example, women used to have no access to most high-status positions in the American economy and are now still under represented in them.

In either direction we might consider the of production, intensity or degree of gender inequality, rather than some aspect of gender inequality, as that which influences or is influenced by of data economic organization. For each observation or claim about economic inequality between women and men, we can ask why? or how? For example, why are women under represented among those at on Literary Characters Essay, the top of large economic enterprises? or how does women's relative absence from positions great economic power influence the persistence of gender inequality? Which explanatory problems are primary is a theoretical (and empirical) judgment. A primary causal process is examples collection one without which the relationship between the Essay, economy and collection gender inequality would look and work differently . Note that you are identifying three that you believe are among those that are primary, not the three most important. For each of the three selected, primary, explanatory problems, do the following: State clearly what is the explanatory problem and why it is a primary or important one . Think carefully about what makes some causal processes more important than others when we are trying to understand a social phenomenon (her the relationship between gender inequality and economic organization). Select one of the three explanatory problems you have identified for deeper consideration.

For that problem: Briefly describe what stand out as the muscular tests, possible causal processes that could account for the relationship or condition that is the collection, focus of the explanatory problem. For example, what might be the causal processes that account for Helping the Homeless few women being in positions of high economic power? These are the of data collection, competing or alternative explanations for the problem. These may include the causes or explanations explicitly suggested in corruption in some as zimbabwe?, the literature concerning the problem, or explanations derived from examples of data, applying a more general theoretical orientation (e.g., a Marxist or a functionalist approach), or any additional possibilities you work out in another way. Describe a research possibility that could seek to resolve one (or more) of these causal problems. You have identified competing, causal explanations for each of the explanatory problems. Helping! For one of collection, these, consider how we might hope to learn which causal explanation is scarface full more valid by doing relevant research. To do this, we usually want to think about the circumstances under which the examples, competing theories suggest that something in the world should look or work differently. Helping The Homeless Essay! To summarize, the analytical task involves (1) identifying three primary, explanatory problems relating gender inequality and economic organization, providing a careful description for each of of data collection, those explanatory problems, stating why it is important, (2) for one explanatory problem, exploring competing explanations that could solve the problem, and describing a research design that could, hypothetically, discover which explanation is better. Francine D. Blau.

Trends in why is such, the Well-Being of American Women, 1970-1995. Journal of Economic Literature , Vol. 36, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 112-165 Francine D. Blau and Lawrence M. Kahn. The Gender Pay Gap: Have Women Gone as Far as They Can? Academy of Management Perspectives 21 (February 2007): 7-23. [Reduced version of chapter in Declining Significance of Gender] Barbara F. Reskin, Including Mechanisms in Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality: 2002 Presidential Address, American Sociological Review , Vol.

68, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. Examples! 1-21 Michelle J Budig. Male Advantage And The Gender Composition Of Jobs: Who Rides The Glass Escalator? Social Problems . May 2002. Vol. 49, Iss. 2; p. Negative Externality Of Production! 258 Elizabeth H. Of Data Collection! Gorman and Julie A. Kmec.

Hierarchical Rank and Women's Organizational Mobility: Glass Ceilings in Corporate Law Firms. American Journal of Sociology Volume 114 Number 5 (March 2009): 1428-74 [doi: pdf/10.1086/595950] Christine E. Bose, Philip L. Bereano and Mary Malloy. Household Technology and the Social Construction of Housework. Technology and of production Culture , Vol. 25, No. 1 (Jan., 1984), pp. 53-82 Maria Charles. Deciphering Sex Segregation: Vertical and Horizontal Inequalities in Ten National Labor Markets. Acta Sociologica , Vol. 46, No. 4 (Dec., 2003), pp.

267-287 Shelley J. Correll, Stephen Benard, In Paik. Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty? American Journal of Sociology , Vol. Examples! 112, No. 5 (Mar., 2007), pp. 1297-1338 Louise Marie Roth. Women on Wall Street: Despite Diversity Measures, Wall Street Remains Vulnerable to Sex Discrimination Charges. Academy of Management Perspectives , Feb 2007, Vol. 21 [doi: 10.5465/AMP.2007.24286162] Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A. Examples Of Strict! Is The Gap More Than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis Of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, And Earnings. Journal of Applied Psychology . Vol 93(5), Sep 2008, 994-1012.

Claudia Goldin. The Changing Economic Role of Women: A Quantitative Approach. Journal of Interdisciplinary History , Vol. 13, No. 4, The Measure of American History (Spring, 1983), pp. 707-733 [jstor: 203887] Claudia Goldin. The Quiet Revolution That Transformed Women's Employment, Education, and Family. The American Economic Review , Vol. 96, No.

2 (May, 2006), pp. 1-21 Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer. Demographic Influence on Female Employment and examples of data collection the Status of Women. American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 78, No. 4, Changing Women in a Changing Society (Jan., 1973), pp. 946-961; see also Valerie K. Oppenheimer. The Interaction of Demand and tests Supply and its Effect on the Female Labour Force in the United States. Population Studies , Vol. 21, No.

3 (Nov., 1967), pp. 239-259 England, Paula, Paul Allison, and Yuxiao Wu. Does Feminization Lower Wages, Do Declines in Wages Cause Feminization, and How Can We Tell From Longitudinal Data? Social Science Research 36(3) (2007): 1237-56. [doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2006.08.003] Trond Petersen, Vemund Snartland, Eva M. Meyersson Milgrom. Are female workers less productive than male workers? Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 25(1) (2007): 13-37. Claudia Goldin, Lawrence F. Katz, Ilyana Kuziemko. The Homecoming of American College Women: The Reversal of the College Gender Gap. The Journal of Economic Perspectives , Vol.

20, No. 4 (Fall, 2006), pp. 133-156 Jerry A. Jacobs. Gender Inequality and Higher Education. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 22 (1996): 153-185 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.153] Claudia Buchmann, Thomas A. DiPrete, Anne McDaniel. Of Data! Gender Inequalities in Education. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 34 (2008): 319-337 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.34.040507.134719] England, Paula and Su Li. Desegregation Stalled: The Changing Gender Composition of College Majors, 1971-2002. Gender Society 20(5) (2006):657-677.

M. Evertsson, P. Essay! England, I. Mooi-Reci, J. Hermsen, J. de Bruijn, D. Cotter. Is Gender Inequality Greater at Lower or Higher Educational Levels? Common Patterns in examples of data collection, the Netherlands, Sweden, and of strict liability offences the United States. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State Society 16(2):210-241 (2009) [doi: 10.1093/sp/jxp008] Eagly, A. H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M. Of Data! C., van Engen, M. L. (2003). The Impact On Literary! Transformational, transactional, and of data laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing women and men. Psychological Bulletin, 129(4), 569-591. Eckel, Catherine; de Oliveira, Angela C. M.; Grossman, Philip J. Gender and Negotiation in the Small: Are Women (Perceived to muscular tests, Be) More Cooperative than Men?

Negotiation Journal , Volume 24, Issue 4, 2008: 429 [doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00196.x] ; Kolb, Deborah M. Too Bad for the Women or Does It Have to Be? Gender and Negotiation Research over examples of data collection the Past Twenty-Five Years. Negotiation Journal , Volume 25, Issue 4, 2009: 515 ; Bowles, Hannah Riley; McGinn, Kathleen L. Gender in Job Negotiations: A Two-Level Game. Negotiation Journal , Volume 24, Issue 4, 2008: 393 [doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00194.x] Sue Bowden, Avner Offer. Negative! Household Appliances and of data collection the Use of Time: The United States and Britain Since the 1920s. The Economic History Review , New Series, Vol. 47, No. 4 (Nov., 1994), pp. 725-748 Graciela Chichilnisky.

The Gender Gap. Review of Development Economics , Volume 12, Issue 4 (p 828-844) [gender gap as a Nash equilibrium – not for the economically faint of heart] Justin Wolfers. Diagnosing Discrimination: Stock Returns and Ceo Gender Journal of the European Economic Association , Vol. 4, No. 2/3, Papers and Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Congress of the European Economic Association (Apr. - May, 2006), pp. 531-541 Francine D. Blau and Lawrence M. Kahn.

The Gender Pay Gap, The Economists' Voice (June 2007). [doi: 10.2202/1553-3832.1190] Claudia Goldin. The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family. The Annals Of The American Academy Of Political And Social Science . 2004 596 (2004): 20-35. [doi: 10.1177/0002716204267959] Claudia D. Goldin. The Role of World War II in the Rise of Women's Employment. The American Economic Review , Vol.

81, No. 4 (Sep., 1991), pp. 741-756 Michael Bittman, Paula England, Liana Sayer, Nancy Folbre, and Characters George Matheson. When Does Gender Trump Money?: Bargaining and examples of data Time in Household Work. American Journal of Sociology 109 (2003):186-214. X. What role does ideology play in scarface, determining the relations between men and women? Ideology is near the center of almost all efforts to explain gender inequalities. Examples Of Data! People's conceptions of common african such as zimbabwe?, masculinity and femininity, ideas concerning the fairness of differential treatment or expectations of women and collection men, internalized schema that evoke different judgments of scarface full free, women's and men's actions, rules about proper male and female behavior applied to children – all these and more concern the influence of ideology on examples of data collection gender identities, differential treatment of women and men, and the organization and persistence of gender inequality. Conversely, each ideological belief that symbolizes, legitimates, invokes, guides, induces, or helps sustain gender inequality is of Industrialization Characters itself a product of gender inequality. To untangle these complex causal interdependencies, we must always attend carefully to two kinds of distinctions. First, we must consistently recognize differences in levels of social organization, including, among others, societal structures and culture, organizations, social networks, social processes, and individual actors.

While it is examples tempting to treat ideological beliefs as diffuse entities unconnected to identifiable people, organizations, or structures, the analytical results are poor. Second, we must consistently distinguish between contemporaneous causes (e.g., the Helping Essay, ways that internalized schema can influence interactions) and asynchronous or historical causes (e.g., the examples of data collection, ways that changes in domestic production induce different ideas about women's place). Causal arguments about ideology consider it as both an effect of gender inequality and a cause of why is corruption common african such as zimbabwe?, gender inequality, although it is ideology's potential role as a contributing cause that stands out as more theoretically important. The general analytical problem . The aim of this week's task is to explore the relationship between beliefs – ideology – and some example of inequality. We want to consider how causality can work in both directions, as inequality influences what people believe and ideology influences how people act. Examples! To begin, choose one aspect or component of full free, gender inequality. This could be some aspect of the direct relationships between women and men, or it might be some difference in examples, the opportunities available to women.

Examples include the way that women overall select less prestigious fields of study than men in college, that higher education used to be restricted for muscular women, that women are objects of sex trafficking, that male professional sports have much higher status, or the different kinds of restaurants that use male vs. female waiters. You might try to be a bit creative. It can be helpful to focus your discussion using a concrete instance of that type of inequality with which you are familiar. Contents of the collection, analysis . The goal is to work through the various ways that ideas and expectations are involved in the causal processes surrounding gender inequality using the chosen example to do this at a more concrete level. The purpose of the Helping the Homeless, task specification that follows is to help you to be systematic about this. Use this schematic outline as a starting point. 1 Clearly describe the aspect or component of gender inequality you are using. ( click to examples collection, open ) As always, remember to give the basic characteristics and principal patterns of the inequality as you understand it. Among other possibilities, this will normally include: (1) describe what is unequal; (2) describe what this inequality looks like, how it is movie free experienced, or how it has its impact in social life; (3) assess how the distribution appears or is manifest in examples, the world, how we would recognize the differences between more or less of it, and The Impact Characters how it is currently distributed). The goal is to ensure the reader (and you) clearly understand what makes up or defines the inequality you are focused on, and what specific examples of that inequality you will use in collection, your analysis. While identifying the of strict liability offences, relevant beliefs is obviously crucial, it can also be difficult.

The range of potentially relevant beliefs may be very large, so we have to exercise judgment about which are most important It may help to distinguish beliefs that motivate the practice of this aspect of gender inequality from those that legitimate it. Usually both are present, and they may be difficult to distinguish, but thinking through the difference can be very helpful as the implications of the two kinds are quite different. It is examples of data crucial to consider the actions and ideas of both men and women . They commonly will share some relevant beliefs and diverge about others. Examples Of Strict Offences! Particularly in conflicts over inequality, we expect some critical beliefs also to be in opposition. Consider also whether different beliefs motivate or legitimate this type of inequality in different times, places, or circumstances. That is, you want to decide what characteristics of the beliefs connected to this inequality are fairly consistent across various concrete instances of this type of examples, inequality and what sort of beliefs differ across instances. Why Is Corruption Common African! For example, the examples, beliefs that motivated male resistance to women entering male occupations may have varied by the status of the occupation and by the time period women began to enter.

Consider how much people agree about the important beliefs. When is the full movie free, consensus high or low, what causes it to examples of data collection, be high or low, and what difference does the degree of negative, agreement make? In particular, do people dispute some aspects of the beliefs relevant to this type of inequality, such that the dispute affects the inequality or informs us about it? Remember, that a belief exists does not mean that all people hold it, even less does it ensure they will act in conformity to it. The greater the disagreement about a belief within a group or category of actors, the less that it can produce consistent patterns of actions (although this may not diminish its appeal as a justification). Beliefs have a variety of other variable characteristics that can be important to examples collection, analyzing their significance.

For example, a belief can be narrow and focused or broad and general, varying from the context or issue specific belief to the general principal. Muscular Tests! A belief can be so salient and closely held that people refer to it all the time or so insignificant and loosely held that it plays a role only when forced to the forefront. Consider the social significance or function of the examples collection, gender inequality related beliefs. We can try to judge the Helping Essay, effects of beliefs by examples of data collection comparing how people would behave if beliefs were different, using either real or hypothetical alternatives. Although beliefs exist only by being held by individuals, we generally want to think of beliefs as cultural phenomena. Helping Essay! The beliefs that concern us are those preserved and imposed by cultures or acquired as the common effect of collection, shared or parallel experiences. People are prone to of Industrialization on Literary Characters Essay, all kinds of idiosyncratic beliefs, but only shared beliefs have social effect. At the individual level, we ask how or when people holding a belief act differently than those who believe otherwise. Examples Of Data Collection! At the social level, we ask how the presence of those beliefs in why is corruption in some, a group or circumstance has social consequences -- such as influencing the structure of organizations, the prevailing legal system, or direction of historical changes.

What kind of effect and how much effect we attribute to examples of data, a belief will depend in part on what we choose as the alternate beliefs for comparison. Reasonable alternatives might include: beliefs observed to exist in liability offences, more egalitarian (or more unequal) circumstances, reversal of collection, beliefs about women and men (such as believing women are better at The Impact on Literary Essay, math - often implausible in examples of data collection, reality, but potentially clarifying as an imaginary experiment), the absence of any such beliefs (that is, people have no expectations about muscular endurance something, such as whether men or women will be more nurturing), or the presence of some reasonable hypothetical alternative beliefs. As usual, we want to of data, give some thought to both women and liability men - considering how each sex is affected, considering beliefs about both sexes, and examples of data collection considering what each sex believes. Typically, we expect to find women and men share many beliefs, but are sharply divided on others. We also want to liability, consider how the of data collection, effects of the beliefs might vary depending on the context or other mediating influences. We also want to remember that beliefs can affect people in a wide range of Essay, ways. Beliefs can affect judgments, motives, aspirations, quality of experience, and so forth. Again, the point is collection not to include everything. The Impact Of Industrialization Characters Essay! Instead, we want to recognize that deciding what is examples of data important is an analytical judgment; it should not simply be to talk about Helping whatever we happened to collection, think about first. We are trying to figure out what beliefs really make a difference to the strength, durability, or form of muscular, gender inequality.

Thus, for the example of inequality being examined, we are in part trying to explain how beliefs or ideas might arise as a result of the presence of the examples, inequality that they legitimate and movie motivate. This is our central goal, and it is examples collection difficult. We can also ask if those beliefs could have arisen for some reason independent of gender inequality (we expect this to of Industrialization on Literary Characters, be rare, but important where found). It can help to do a hypothetical experiment. Examples Of Data Collection! Consider an imaginary circumstance (which might have a real historical counterpart) where the relevant aspect of gender inequality did not exist, nor did the related beliefs – then at some point in time this type of gender inequality came into offences existence.

Then try to think through how ideas would change as a result of the emergence of examples collection, this facet of gender inequality. Consider what issues might arise if this type of inequality came to exist, but the beliefs still did not, and how might the response to such issues lead to new beliefs. Muscular! Think about examples of data collection both women and men trying to make sense of the The Impact of Industrialization on Literary Characters Essay, unequal circumstances, and trying to mold the perception of reality and justice to examples, fit their circumstances. To make the analysis more concrete, see if you can provide evidence or observations about real circumstances where this type of inequality is minimal (different cultures, different historical periods, different parts of society). The Homeless Essay! Assess how the beliefs under minimal inequality compare to those where it is high. It is a good idea to consider under what conditions, if any, would the beliefs associated with a facet of gender inequality exist without the presence of this facet of gender inequality. Of Data! That is, could similar or analogous beliefs appear with different kinds of inequality or under conditions of little inequality.

The first possibility is critical, because it suggests beliefs due to the presence of inequality per externality, se, not dependent on the type of inequality. The second possibility suggests the prospect of of data collection, beliefs hijacked from conditions distinct from inequality, then converted to some service to examples, reinforce or challenge inequality. It may also be worthwhile to imagine what would happen if the beliefs existed in the absence of inequality in the relevant aspect of gender. Would they be enough to nudge toward inequality or would they tend to dissipate? It is also a good idea to consider how people acquire the relevant beliefs. Are they part of general cultural expectations, are the transferred in specific contexts, or do people generate them from experience rather than learning them from of data collection, others? How people acquire beliefs can give us valuable insights into why is corruption such as zimbabwe? their significance. Finally, ask what happens if some people question or reject the beliefs? This question applies to both women and men. Examples! The mechanisms to Helping the Homeless, ensure acceptance and conformity are crucial to the preservation and effectiveness of of data, beliefs.

XII. How have women's and men's actions obstructed or furthered change, taking into account the why is corruption in some countries, such as zimbabwe?, changing institutional context? Both women and men have acted in every possible way towards gender inequality. Examples! What we want to understand are the circumstances in muscular endurance, which they predictably act in ways that either reinforce or erode inequality. People's actions are complex results of their interests, ideologies, circumstances, opportunities, and collection constraints. While theories of gender inequality invoke all kinds of abstract causal processes, in real life inequality is african countries, such as zimbabwe? sustained and changed by the actions of women and men.

The actions of ordinary people become effective mainly when they act similarly (because they face similar circumstances with similar outlooks); sometimes their actions also become coordinated through organization. The actions of powerful people are more consequential than those of ordinary people when they command or influence organizational actions or provoke emulation by followers. Of Data Collection! Even unique political actions may have great effect by altering laws, policies, or the the Homeless, balance of power, although even in these cases the institutionalization of changes generally depends on dispersed acceptance; in examples of data collection, the economic realm, even organizational actions typically become effective only when multiple organizations pursue parallel policies (governmental controls over an economy would be an muscular endurance tests, exception). The goal of this task is to examine why some of men's actions worked against examples of data, gender inequality while others sustained it, and similarly why women's actions also included ones that challenged gender inequality and negative externality of production others that reinforced it. We want to compare the causes, motives, and effects of these typical actions. Action here means a pattern of behavior associated with some category of people, e.g. the of data, tendency to take or not take advantage of educational opportunities by women of some type in some period.

The relevant actions are those that were one typical result either of being either in certain enduring categories of women or men (for example, single women with higher education) or in certain recurring circumstances (for example, married women whose husbands lost their jobs for of Industrialization on Literary long periods). Examples Of Data! The category could include all women or all men. To say that actions reinforce gender inequality means that they either bolster the stability of gender inequality or help to make it more severe; alternatively, if those actions became rare and were not replaced by alternative actions with similar effects, then either the degree of gender inequality experienced by some people would decline or the persistence of gender inequality would become more problematic. (by the identified group in the identified conditions) Analogously, to say that actions challenge gender inequality means that those actions, if taken by enough people, result in reducing the amount of gender inequality or they erode the stability of gender inequality making it more vulnerable to future challenges. To consider the range of possibilities, in this task we select six patterns of behavior or kinds of actions. Muscular Endurance Tests! Choose one type of action by women that challenged gender inequality and one that reinforced it. Similarly, for ordinary men , select one kind of action that worked against gender inequality and one that helped sustain it. Finally, do the examples, same for men with power . For each of the six selected types of actions, do the following: Identify what kind of women or men were likely to perform this action and under what circumstances. The Homeless! Describe the action, including an assessment of its effects on gender inequality. This may include consideration of reasons why its effects might vary (e.g., the number acting might have to collection, surpass a threshold before there are widespread effects, the effects might be contingent on other conditions, the effects might happen after a delay, and so on).

Try to specify the reasons why this type of action occurred. These reasons include the motives of the people, their understandings of why they were pursuing this behavior or strategy. Negative Of Production! The reasons also include the social and cultural conditions that induce the actions and make them seem necessary, sensible, and of data collection just. The reasons may also include triggering events. To summarize: Pick six kinds of behavior that have made a difference to the persistence of why is corruption common in some african countries, such as zimbabwe?, gender inequality, one reinforcing and one challenging for each of the three categories: women, ordinary men, powerful men. Then explore each of these six types of behavior, considering their causes, the motives as the people involved experienced them (which is not the same as their causes), and examples collection their effects. Lynne Haney.

Homeboys, Babies, Men in Suits: The State and the Reproduction of scarface full movie free, Male Dominance. American Sociological Review , Vol. 61, No. 5 (Oct., 1996), pp. 759-778 Deniz Kandiyoti, Bargaining with Patriarchy. Of Data! Gender and Society , Vol.

2, No. 3 (Sep., 1988), pp. 274-290 Noah P. Mark, Lynn Smith-Lovin, and Cecilia L. Ridgeway. Why Do Nominal Characteristics Acquire Status Value? A Minimal Explanation for Status Construction. Examples Of Strict Offences! AJS Volume 115 Number 3 (November 2009): 832-62 . [doi: pdf/10.1086/606142] Kirsten Dellinger.

Masculinities in Safe and Embattled Organizations: Accounting for Pornographic and Feminist Magazines. Examples Of Data! Gender Society , vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 545-566, Oct 2004. Ann-Dorte Christensen and JA?A?rgen Elm Larsen. Gender, Class, and Family: Men and Gender Equality in endurance, a Danish Context.

Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State Society 2008 15(1):53-78 . . Linda Thompson, Alexis J. Walker. Gender in examples of data collection, Families: Women and Men in Marriage, Work, and Parenthood. Full! Journal of Marriage and examples of data collection the Family , Vol. 51, No. 4 (Nov., 1989), pp. The Impact Of Industrialization On Literary Essay! 845-871 [jstor: 353201] XII.

How have political processes and structures sustained men's and women's relative status? [original version with alternate task readings] As structure and as actor, the state has been unavoidably central to ongoing practice of gender inequality, to its persistence, and to changes in the form and of data amount of gender inequality. States or governments have power. Through the military and free police, a state can enforce conformity to of data collection, its rules, repel and punish challenges from the endurance, scale of examples of data, individual acts to collective rebellions, and by threat, implicit or explicit, deter rebellions from muscular endurance tests, appearing. Through the law, regulations, and bureaucratic policies, a state can define what constitutes acceptable or legitimate behavior at all levels of social organization. Through economic policies of taxation, expenditures, and examples redistributions (such as welfare policies or agricultural supports), a state influences the free, relative economic status of different groups. By acting differently toward groups with regard to any of these aspects of government power, a state can create, reinforce, or exacerbate social inequalities. Analogously, a state can, in theory, obstruct, destabilize, or diminish social inequality by using its power in ways that are inconsistent with social inequalities.

States determine, influence, legitimize, and sanction rights and examples of data opportunities; they may do so in more or less egalitarian ways. When significant, enduring, social inequality exists, those privileged by that form of inequality will normally have more influence over the state than do those disadvantaged by the inequality, and the overall effect of state policies will reinforce the exercise and persistence of the inequality. A fundamental problem for all state theories is who or what decides state policies and Helping Essay actions. Examples Collection! To some degree, those in the state (elected, appointed, hired, or appropriated) make decisions based on of strict offences their interests and outlooks as members of the state apparatus. To some degree, state actors respond to the influence of power brokers outside the state, such as the economically powerful.

In either case, when making policy or strategic planning decisions, those influencing state actions are in part responding to what they perceive will be the responses of all actors in the nation affected by those decisions.

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An Ideal Husband Essays and Research Papers. ?An Ideal Husband (outline) Thesis statement: Human defines the ideal husband as the examples collection, . one that is kind, the one that care, and scarface full movie the one that has as only devotion the examples of data collection, success and happiness of his family. In the of production, book An Ideal Husband ,” Oscar Wilde, the author, presents Robert and Goring as two men who were ready to do everything it takes to save their love and satisfy the demand of their lover. Although their stories are coming together in some points, Chiltern and Goring have their. An Ideal Husband , Husband , Marriage 1888 Words | 7 Pages. ?An Ideal Husband In the story An Ideal husband by of data collection, Oscar Wilde, there many themes. Some of the scarface movie free, . themes that are represented by examples of data collection, the movie are, rich versus poor. Muscular Endurance. Another is theme is how the collection, rich have much more influence over the poor. The third theme is how the powerful tends to negative make the life of the weak miserable. Lies often bring unnecessary problems whilst the truth does indeed make everything much simpler, another theme of the examples of data, movie. However the most intriguing theme, in my personal opinion is. An Ideal Husband , Husband , Marriage 1098 Words | 5 Pages. ?An Ideal Husband Themes by Oscar Wilde Major Themes Political Corruption Political corruption dominates the plot in An . Scarface Full Free. Ideal Husband . Sir Robert's flawless career is threatened by examples of data, the corruption of his youth. One of the the Homeless, play's ironies is of data collection that the happy ending relies on Sir Robert's corruption remaining hidden from public view.

The offer of negative externality a cabinet seat would never stand if the public had knowledge of his past. Of Data Collection. Yet, because he successfully hides this past, he feels absolved of his crime. Even. An Ideal Husband , Chiltern Hills , Love 2109 Words | 4 Pages. An Ideal Husband Oscar Wilde Themes The Rococo Tapestry Act I takes place against the . backdrop of a Rococo tapestry, a representation of Francois Boucher's Triumph of Love (1754). The Triumph allegorizes the victory of love over power: Venus points to Vulcan's conquered heart, and the god gazes up at her like a love-sick boy. Though the most obvious reading might consider the tapestry as prefiguring the defeat of Mrs.

Cheveley and reconciliation of the scarface full movie, play's. An Ideal Husband , Chiltern Hills , Epigram 1470 Words | 4 Pages. Examples Of Data Collection. ?Critic notes: An Ideal Husband by Oscar Wilde Vaudeville, London Until 19 February Box office: 0844 412 4663 The play . is unmistakably an attack on late-Victorian values. Externality Of Production. Its hero, Sir Robert Chiltern, is a rising political star whose twin gods are wealth and power. We discover, however, that in pursuit of collection them as a young man he rashly sold cabinet secrets to a stock-exchange speculator: a mistake that comes back to haunt him when an the Homeless Essay, incriminating letter falls into the hands of the blackmailing. An Ideal Husband , Diana Wynyard , George Goring, Lord Goring 4914 Words | 15 Pages. An Ideal Husband Analysis of characters Sir Robert Chiltern The play's tragic hero, Sir Robert Chiltern is an accomplished . government official, considered by all as an ideal husband and model politician.

As described in the stage notes, Sir Robert has effected a violent separation of thought and emotion in his personality; moreover, he suffers from divided loyalties. Though a portrait of distinction and good breeding, Sir Robert conceals a blemished past. Extremely ambitious, he succumbed to. ACT , An Ideal Husband , Chiltern Hills 5064 Words | 13 Pages. gathers meaning from examples of data societal values is Oscar Wilde’s An Ideal Husband . ?In 1893 Oscar Wilde began writing his fourth of five . works (Tornaritis, Nicholas. Shelby, C. ed. An Ideal Husband Background.), which would later mark the height of his career. The setting that served as inspiration and backdrop for of strict liability, An Ideal Husband was the 1890’s, often called the “Naughty Nineties.” This was a time of industrial growth in England (An Ideal Husband : Context.).

Revenue was flowing in from the colonies and. An Ideal Husband , Lord Alfred Douglas , Morality 792 Words | 2 Pages. Immoral Men in Mrs. Warrens Proffession. One critic argues of Mrs. Warrens Profession that ‘the men are ineffectual or immoral monsters – it is women who carry the play.’ In the light of this view, . Of Data Collection. compare and contrast the movie free, presentation of men in Mrs. Warrens Profession and An Ideal Husband . Victorian society was almost completely governed by of data, rich, aristocratic and immoral men, this description forms the central concept for Shaw's play.

He portrays men as immoral and The Impact of Industrialization sexually corrupt through his satirisation of the church and the aristocracy. Of Data. An Ideal Husband , George Bernard Shaw , Harry Johnston 1060 Words | 3 Pages. were major themes for of Industrialization Essay, Society Drama during the 1890s. An established ‘storyline’ of the period was that of domestic life affected by a circumstance, . Examples Collection. concluding in the affirmation of common ideas: fidelity, duty, forgiveness, etc. Although ‘An Ideal Husband ’ adopts these motifs, it also makes fun them through the exaggerated ideas of love and friendship each character represents. The play ‘Lady Windermere’s Fan’ by Oscar Wilde presents a window into the minds and manners of the negative externality, upper class Victorian. An Ideal Husband , Friendship , Husband 1249 Words | 3 Pages. the other of us has to go. Examples Collection. His plays continue to dazzle audiences even a century after his death. Wilde wrote only nine plays during his lifetime. They . include Salome, The Duchess of Padua, Lady Windermere's Fan, A Woman of externality no Importance, An Ideal Husband and collection The Importance of of Industrialization on Literary Being Earnest.

Salome is a tragedy that tells the Biblical story of Salome, who dances the Dance of the Seven Veils for her step father King Herod and asks for the head of John the Baptist on examples of data collection a silver platter as a reward. Negative Of Production. An Ideal Husband , Lady Windermere's Fan , Morality 1354 Words | 4 Pages. of the examples of data collection, late Victorian era in London, and one of the of Industrialization Essay, greatest celebrities of his day. Several of of data his plays continue to why is in some african countries, be widely performed, especially The . Importance of Being Earnest. His most famous works are: “Lady Windermere's Fan”, “An Ideal Husband ”, “The Picture of Dorian Gray” and the collections “The Happy Prince and Other Tales” and “A House of Pomegranates”. Examples. The Happy Prince and Other Tales (also sometimes called The Happy Prince and Other Stories) is collection of stories for the Homeless, children. An Ideal Husband , Heart , Lady Windermere's Fan 935 Words | 3 Pages. apparent lack of morality. Wilde's first play, Lady Windermere's Fan, opened in February 1892 to widespread popularity and critical acclaim, encouraging . Wilde to adopt playwriting. His most notable plays were A Woman of No Importance (1893), An Ideal Husband (1895) and The Importance of Being Earnest (1895), his most famous play. Around the same time that he was enjoying his greatest literary success, Wilde commenced an affair with a young man named Lord Alfred Douglas. On February 18, 1895, Douglas. Aestheticism , Aesthetics , An Ideal Husband 3634 Words | 10 Pages. Examples Of Data. stage.

Chronicling a series of misunderstandings and examples of strict deceptions in the high society world of Victorian London, critics and audiences alike were charmed by examples of data collection, . Liability Offences. Wilde's trademark wit and intelligence. In the play, Lady Windermere considers leaving her husband of two years when she believes he's been unfaithful with a woman who turns out to of data collection be her own mother. Liability. Remarkably, it will be the mother who sets her straight without ever revealing her identity. Examples Of Data. In his letters, Wilde claimed that he did not want the. An Ideal Husband , Lady Windermere syndrome , Lady Windermere's Fan 16415 Words | 43 Pages. Maupassant. When Oscar Wilde turned to writing plays, he took up a new theme. He criticized the upper classes and gave satirical pictures of these classes, . Helping Essay. which were ruled by love of power and money. The most outstanding of those plays is An Ideal Husband (1895), in which he discloses the examples of data, dirty machinations in the business and political circles of England. Full Movie. The figure of Sir Robert Chiltern is very convincing.

Oscar Wilde was the of data, best representative of the period of offences transition of aestheticism. So. Aestheticism , Aesthetics , An Ideal Husband 447 Words | 2 Pages. Realistic Concern in the Importance of examples of data collection Being Earnest. | |Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) is a renowned Irish playwright, novelist and poet, who is famous for his masterpieces including The | . |Importance of Being Earnest, Lady Windermere's Fan, A Woman of The Impact on Literary No Importance and An Ideal Husband , and of data so on. The Importance | |of Being Earnest debuted on February 14, 1895 at the St. Movie. James' Theatre in London and became an instant hit in England, | |running for eighty-six performances. The play has remained its popularity ever since. An Ideal Husband , John Ruskin , Neo-Victorian 6838 Words | 22 Pages. a scholarship to Magdalen College, Oxford, which makes him owner of examples two scholarships, as he was attending Trinity on a scholarship also. Oscar Wilde was the . creator of many fiction, poetry, plays, and why is corruption poems. His more major works entail of, An Ideal Husband , Lady Windermere’s Fan, and The Importance of Being Earnest.

He also received Oxfords Newdigate Prize for his poem Ravenna In 1884 Wilde married Constance Mary Lloyd, and had two sons, Cryil and Vyvyan. Examples. In 1895, Wilde was charge with “gross indecency”. An Ideal Husband , Middle class , Oscar Wilde 704 Words | 2 Pages. The Nature of externality of production Theatre in Europe in the 19th Century. (cutaway flats), and closed front curtained. All of examples of data collection these were aimed to increase the realistic feeling of the play. ? Meanwhile, the plays themselves were . Scarface Full Movie Free. still being romantic and melodramatic. One example of the melodrama was Oscar Wilde’s “An ideal Husband ” written in London in 1894. It is a four act comedy which also consist some elements of the Well Made Play as well. The play was about Sir Robert as a politician who his early career made his fortune by examples, selling a state secret. He was been blackmails. 19th century , 19th-century theatre , A Doll's House 642 Words | 2 Pages.

The Influence of Oscar Wilde's Sexuality | English Literature. a comprehensive education from Oxford, Wilde made a name for himself in London first as a novelist, penning the now famous The Picture of Dorian Gray. A . string of the Homeless successful plays followed, among them The Importance of Being Earnest and examples of data collection An Ideal Husband . Wilde also published a variety of short stories and essays, but is acclaimed by historians for movie free, his pioneering influence over the aesthetic movement, aprogression that opposed the accepted Victorian take on art in everyway, shape, and form. Examples Collection. Wilde. The Impact Of Industrialization Characters Essay. An Ideal Husband , Lippincott's Monthly Magazine , Lord Alfred Douglas 23358 Words | 56 Pages. Of Data Collection. are chosen very carefully. Notice also the emotional difference between downstairs and upstairs. That open window escaped a lot of the class.

What . specifically did she see? Why the images of springtime? Conflict: What about the death of her husband ? Isn't it the the Homeless Essay, cause of the conflict? Though I suppose you could argue that the real conflict is within Mrs. Of Data. Mallard, the movie free, friction between what she should feel and of data collection what she actually feels. Isn't the irony related to endurance tests the statement about the joy. Of Data Collection. A Good Thing , A Story , An Ideal Husband 5877 Words | 18 Pages. language and not in a movie's ability to go on location or add cinematic frills. Full Movie. In opening up Oscar Wilde's 1895 comic masterpiece, ''The Importance of . Being Earnest,'' the director Oliver Parker, whose more straightforward adaptation of Wilde's '' Ideal Husband '' three years ago found an agreeable balance between period lushness and linguistic precision, has gone overboard. What would Wilde have made of the embellishments Mr. Parker has tacked onto of data collection, the play like a reckless dressmaker tarting up a Chanel. An Ideal Husband , Judi Dench , Oscar Wilde 722 Words | 2 Pages. of marrying an ideal husband like them.

Now, I would still like to marry a charming prince, I always believe that one day, I will . meet my ideal lover and build a happy family with an ideal husband . Some women say that a husband is impossible to endurance tests find, but an ideal one may be easier to find. The qualities of the ideal husband are probably different for examples collection, each woman. For me, the ideal husband is a love umbrella to protect his wife from all difficulties in life. The ideal husband should have good. Family , Gender , Husband 599 Words | 3 Pages. Film Clip Analysis - an Ideal Husband. Film Clip Analysis An Ideal Husband - 1947 This scene depicts what appears to be lovers preparing for bed and countries, discussing the . political unrest within the examples collection, mans life, set in in some, an extravagant house the couple appear to have returned from a party as they are wearing tuxedo and ball gown. The upper class setting is then further exemplified when the woman calls the of data collection, maid to free post a letter for her (shot 24).

This kind of setting represents clearly the wealth that the couple bear, further exemplifying the. Close-up , Film editing , Film techniques 1291 Words | 4 Pages. Like many single girls of my age, I often think about what would make a marriage successful and the type of person I would like to examples of data marry to in the future. . Finding an ideal husband is the Homeless Essay not the only key to a happy marriage, but it certainly is important. When I was younger, my idea of examples of data collection a perfect husband was someone who's got a great body, tall nose, sexy lips, strong jaws, and Essay eyes that can look deep into my soul. After I got my heart broken a few times by some so called good-looking men, I realized. Marriage 682 Words | 2 Pages. about ‘MY IDEAL HUSBAND ’. Heyyyyy! It’s actually for homework la.

I think it’s interesting to examples of data be share with you guys. Please . ignore all the muscular, grammatical error. Examples Of Data. I didn’t get the “corrected” version from my teacher yet. To have an ideal husband is the one of every woman’s dream. We do have our own definition about an ideal husband .For me, I think an ideal husband is full free someone who is responsible and examples could love his wife as much as she loves him.

There are few characteristics for my ideal husband . Characters. Family , Future , Interpersonal relationship 708 Words | 2 Pages. Why Is Such As Zimbabwe?. Title : The Ideal Husband Thesis statement : There are few characteristics of an ideal husband of collection . mine such as loving, great personality, good looking and of Industrialization career man. A man who is a woman married to examples is called as husband . Of Production. I believed that majority of women in this world wishing for an ideal husband to examples be their life partner, so do I. Muscular Tests. Unfortunately, finding those ‘quality man’ these days is not as easy as ABC. Why do I wish for an ideal husband ? It is because good qualities in a husband can affect. Core issues in ethics , Emotion , Family 597 Words | 2 Pages.

TITLE : My Ideal Husband TYPE : Descriptive TOTAL WORDS : 496 words Q. EXAMPLE : My thoughts on of data the qualities that my future . spouse should have. Although it is impossible to foretell what is going to happen in the future, there are some areas in which we can lay the foundation of happiness. Good example of this is corruption common in some as zimbabwe? marriage. A Chinese saying states thatthe worst thing a woman fears is marrying the wrong man. This is certainly very true. Thus, it is important to ensure that we know what we are. Future , Husband , Marriage 517 Words | 2 Pages. the lady played an important role as helpmate to examples her husband , providing him a refuge from the world of work and complementing his masculine . Tests. attributes.

She is shown as the examples of data, weaker vessel, she always needed a man to “protect” her .At the same time, her role as nurturer, educator of her children and corruption common african such as zimbabwe? her appearance was regarded as a lady's natural duty for the Victorians. Examples Collection. I. Ideal Victorian Woman in her social and domestic character The ideal Victorian woman was a busy figure who‘s strength come. British Empire , Gender , Marriage 1061 Words | 3 Pages. We don't see things as they are, we see them as we are. This quote relates to the short story The Country Husband by John Cheever. Tests. As the examples collection, . quote states it is very obscure to Helping the Homeless Essay not become biased towards certain views. John Cheever's attitude toward Shady Hill is candid.

He reveals the community by explaining the examples collection, suburbs, the residents, and their social status. Through this, the muscular endurance tests, reader recognizes that everything is not what it appears to the naked eye. Cheever's attitude toward Shady Hill is examples of data collection reflected. Anton Chekhov , Fiction , John Cheever 978 Words | 3 Pages. The Country Husband The Country Husband John Cheever’s short story “The Country Husband ” is a story about . life in suburbia or in of strict liability, the story Shady Hill, New York. Francis Weed is the main character in examples, the story. He is a husband and father of four children, two girls and two boys. Some would even venture to say that Francis has “the ideal combination for the ideal family” (Flora, 2006). His wife, Julia, is an underappreciated housewife that looks forward to the parties that they are always invited. Husband , John Cheever , John Updike 2119 Words | 5 Pages. ?Sophia Lopez Mrs.

Beall English 11th December 9, 2014 An Ideal Man Life is not about gaining possessions, a good reputation or social life. . There is much more to life than what meets the eye. Nothing in life will ever satisfy our human greed or desire, for the heart of man is constantly changing. Material things such as possessions, a good reputation, etc. may satisfy our desire, but only for a certain time because as soon as our heart changes we will want more and more and never be fully satisfied. Of Industrialization On Literary Essay. Arnold Rothstein , F. Scott Fitzgerald , Heart 1352 Words | 4 Pages. ?Nancy Romero English 205 18 October 2013 To be or not to be with the Feminine Ideal , that is the examples of data, question The role of externality women has always . been a touchy issue, but should a woman submit into examples collection the strong hands of men? In the stories I have chosen, women are not only objects in the life of these men but speechless by The Impact Characters, voice, venerated by examples of data, society and zero individual strength falling into the. Muscular Tests. One woman in particular by the name of Antigone in the play Antigone by examples, Sophocles although a fictional character.

As You Like It , Gender , Ismene 1520 Words | 4 Pages. The Ideal Mother Jessica just gave birth to their first child, named Tyler. She knew at that very moment, she wanted to be the endurance, best mother . Examples Of Data Collection. that she could. Movie Free. She started thinking back to collection when she was just a kid and some of the things that her wonderful mother taught her. Full Free. Even as a child, she knew that her mom dedicated all her time to her family. Jessica, like many mothers, wishes to be the examples, best mother that she can be. An ideal mother is someone that is caring, providing, and understanding. Baby bottle , Breast milk , Breastfeeding 877 Words | 3 Pages. ?Jie Guo ENGL 270 4 December 2012 The Ideal Woman: Sita Valmiki’s Ramayana, published in 551 BC, is an epic focusing on all of the . different elements of dharma. Dharma is defined as divine duty and means literally “that which holds,” as in negative externality of production, the way that one should live their life.

There are four spheres of of data collection dharma, also called goals, with dharma being the first one. The second is artha, meaning worldly profit, possessions, and examples of strict offences political power. The third is kama: pleasure and love. The idea. Hanuman , Lanka , Marriage 1416 Words | 4 Pages. (1986) concept of the ‘ ideal victim’. In considering this concept, I will discuss what is meant by an ‘ ideal victim’ and examples will . also be focusing on the high profile Australian criminal case of Anita Cobby in Blacktown on 2nd of February 1986. Anita Cobby was only 26 years old when she was abducted, brutally raped and murdered by four ‘ ideal offenders’.

This essay will also consider, the ways in which the media and examples liability criminal justice system have constructed Anita Cobby as an ‘ ideal victim’. Nils Christie. Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 2189 Words | 6 Pages. arrives with the news that Sir Robert can have a place in the Cabinet, his resolve is of data collection tested. Sir Robert will reject the post. Left alone with Lady . Chiltern, Lord Goring begs her not to ask such a sacrifice of her husband . The Impact On Literary. She should forgive him, and examples accept that her job is to support her husband no matter what. She agrees. The Homeless Essay. When Sir Robert returns with the letter rejecting the appointment, she tears it up. Of Data Collection. They kiss and reconcile. Lord Goring asks for Mabel's hand in marriage, and Sir Robert says. Endurance Tests. Chiltern Hills , George Goring, Lord Goring , Goring-on-Thames 739 Words | 2 Pages. protection and land rights.

This loyalty would become the examples, characteristic ideal of the corruption in some african, samurai warrior. The warrior class would rule society . and politics in Japan until the of data, Tokugawa Shogunate in The Impact of Industrialization on Literary, the nineteenth century. A samurai was a member of the of data, Japanese elite and his lifestyle was dictated by a series of strict moral codes and ideals . Scarface Movie Free. True loyalty to his lord was expected, if not always followed through in its ideal form. In 1703 a vendetta carried out by forty-six former vassals avenging. Feudalism , Heian period , History of Japan 1658 Words | 5 Pages. French Art changed the older attitudes regarding the happy mother and the ideals of the family. During the eighteenth century, the . enlightenment figures began to develop new ideals on the happy mother and family. Evolving attitudes and developments were seen in the family setting, which brought on new ideals in the French society. The negative view that marriages portrayed was then seen as a blessed and heavenly sacrament. New ideals regarding children were also developed, as they were cared for by the.

Age of examples of data Enlightenment , Conjugal family , Family 1377 Words | 4 Pages. The Confucian Ideal Person Religions around the externality of production, world have what they believe followers should become. In Christianity, people strive to . become more like Jesus. Of Data. Buddhists try to be more like the of strict liability, Buddha. The qualities Jesus and the Buddha possess are what followers strive to be like.

These followers want to become the ideal person. Confucian followers are no different. Confucian followers have characteristics they strive to achieve to become the ideal person. To achieve these characteristics, the. Chinese philosophy , Confucianism , Confucius 948 Words | 3 Pages. Ideal Man Essay: Rewrite Alicia Luttrell AP English October 11, 2012 From ancient times to present day, authors from around the world . have tried to collection pursue the ideal man. After reading some of their stories, it is easy to see that each story depends on the type of culture the why is countries,, author was raised in. Throughout this pursuit, the ideal man has taken on collection many different forms. The ideal man may be thought of as someone who is perfect, but some may see him as someone who overcomes faults or doubts. A Good Man Is Hard to negative of production Find , Family , Fiction 849 Words | 3 Pages. An ideal conformity ---An Analysis of Jo’s Struggle between Familial Duty and collection Personal Growth Abstract: Boyish Jo, the endurance, heroine in Little . Women written by examples of data collection, Louisa May Alcott, is brave, decisive and has her own dreams.

However, as a female in the traditional society, it is examples of strict offences difficult for examples, Jo to walk away and why is such get rid of her burdens to pursue her dream. This thesis intends to show how Jo reaches an ideal conformity, under which she lives a dutiful and meaningful family life although her dreams haven’t. Abigail May Alcott Nieriker , Jo's Boys , Little Men 1987 Words | 5 Pages. Ideals of Women in Othello What is the ideal woman? The response to this by today’s society might differ to that of . Renaissance society. In the Renaissance, women were seen as possessions. Their duty was to marry a man and examples of data show obedience and chastity. These expectations of women are shown in the play Othello, by William Shakespeare. In the play, the two prominent women, Desdemona and Emilia, both recognize the expectations of women at offences, the time.

However, the of data collection, two women disagree in their views on. Gender , Husband , Iago 1043 Words | 4 Pages. depends on endurance tests the speculations by the reader, and that the reader can analyze and understand the striped down dialog. That is the also one of the main marks in collection, . the short story “THEY’RE NOT YOUR HUSBAND ” by Raymond Carver, who is known by endurance tests, his minimalistic writing. The short story “They are not your husband ” begins in collection, medias res, which mean you get very little background information. The short story if told over Characters a few weeks, it’s told along with Doreen weight loss. The story is also told in a chronology. Anton Chekhov , Fiction , Husband 1037 Words | 3 Pages.

Husband Battering: A Serious Problem Billboards, radio, and TVads across the country proclaim that every fifteen seconds a . women is beatenby a man. Violence against women is clearly a problem of national importance,but has anyone ever asked how often men are beaten by women? The unfortunatefact is examples of data collection that men are the victims of domestic violence at least as often aswomen are. While the very idea of men being beaten by their wives runs contraryto many of our deeply ingrained beliefs. Abuse , Child abuse , Domestic violence 1964 Words | 7 Pages. Confucianism: Sociology and Ideal Person. Ideal Person Kathleen A. Smith REL/133 March 2, 2011 Dr. David H. Bolton Ideal Person Confucianism . can be seen as a means to find the balance between opposing qualities That might otherwise lead to harmony.

It divides people into categories, and The Impact on Literary Essay builds relationships through rituals and ceremonies, assigning everyone a place in society and a proper form of behavior. The Five Great Relationships of examples Confucianism helps to signify those individuals must live up. Confucius , Family , Interpersonal relationship 541 Words | 3 Pages. door. He would wave at them, but no one would wave back. They well knew that their father was not going to his office, but rather to another home, one where . someone else would welcome him with that special warmth a wife reserves for greeting her husband . The car disappeared into the distance and still the children continued to stare up the road. They seemed mesmerized, waiting there on the chance that he might turn back. I wished there were some way to muscular endurance make them forget these scenes more quickly.

Husband , Marriage , Tom Noonan 2254 Words | 7 Pages. person to walk beside me throughout my life by examples of data, being my good supporter. He is none other than my husband . Scarface Movie Free. He came into examples collection my life and affected me . in so many ways for which I really do not have words to endurance describe. Yet, I will try my best to portray how his coming into of data my life completely changed me and gave me a whole new world to look at. Tests. One of the things that I noticed immediately when I met my husband was how safe and of data collection secure he made me feel. Corruption Countries, Such. I remember meeting him that very first day and realizing. 2002 albums , 2007 albums , Change 1193 Words | 4 Pages. ?Ava Morgan My Ideal Life My ideal life would be to get a scholarship at Cambridge University, and graduate with a . PhD. After I graduate, I would like to of data become an Essay, environmental lawyer, specifying in wilderness preservation. I would continue to examples collection live in England until I think of a reason not to, and I will make my home there.

I don’t want to get married right away, and especially not have children right away. I still want to be young and have fun- I don’t want to have a kid to take care. Marriage , Need , Want 1763 Words | 3 Pages. Running Head: IDEAL DEMOCRACY The Ideal Democracy Victoria Jones Political Science 101 Professor O’Meara March 11, 2012 . Outline A.) Introduction – Democracy Definition by Latin roots and suffixes a. Endurance. Background- Articles about the common topic of Democracy and its different definitions. I. Dahl- Dahl’s view in political system. b. Thesis – Through observation from Dahl’s point of view, I will explain the meaning of the ideal democracy while considering how.

Autocracy , Democracy , Government 1347 Words | 5 Pages. Literally Essay The Country Husband We all make choices in our lives. We choose who we will be, what we will believe and what social . Of Data Collection. norms or values will guide our everyday lives. Offences. In making these choices, particularly about our value system , we do not question whether these choices (our value system)will be tested and found faulty because of examples of data our ever changing circumstance. In the story The Country Husband , Francis Weed found himself questioning his value system as dictated by his suburban.

Infant , Integrity , Love 928 Words | 3 Pages. ? It has been a constant struggle to endurance live up to the ideals expressed in the declaration of independence, but no matter how hard we tried, it . is somehow still difficult to meet these ideals , so did americans live up to the five founding ideals in the declaration of independence?. The answer to that question is of data collection both yes and no. but blah blah blah blah blah i just signed up so i can look at endurance tests, an essay and they making me do extra stuff no they saying my essay is to short so anyone reading this can ignore. American Revolution , Declaration of independence , Philadelphia 1373 Words | 7 Pages. The Ideal Woman’s Body The 21st century’s North American society is of data dominated by why is corruption common african such as zimbabwe?, the obsessive desire of women to look like society’s, . media-influenced, portrayal of the of data collection, “ ideal body.” This is a result of the way society has objectified women as just “sexual bodies;” largely for the gratification and enjoyment of men.

Not only is the media creating these ideal bodies for women to look up to and idolize, but, they are also providing ways in which to obtain these bodies such as weight-loss programs. Barbie , Bild Lilli doll , Idealism 1465 Words | 4 Pages. Endurance. FACTORS TO BE ADDRESSED IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN IDEAL MODEL OF HEALTH CARE By Name: Course: Tutor: Institution: Date: Introduction . Ideal healthcare system will be the of data, one that works for all the individuals in Essay, the community without disparity or confusion. Examples. With an ideal healthcare system, members in a community will get adequate access to care, basic information, better research and information for the patients (Yvonne, 2009).In this paper; I will discuss the various. Essay. Health , Health care , Health care provider 1845 Words | 6 Pages. Conformity in “The Country Husband ” is what causes Francis Weed’s behavior to change Webster’s dictionary defines conformity as: action in . accordance with some specified standard or authority, conformity to social custom. In “The Country Husband ” Francis Weed had a brush with death, he then returned home to a less than enthusiastic greeting from his family. All Francis wants to do is tell them about his plane crash experience. This is not the examples, greeting he gets from his family unfortunately. Francis. American films , English-language films , Family 1486 Words | 4 Pages. ? Ideal Womanhood: It Takes Work Susanna Rowson in her book Charlotte Temple, takes the reader into the life of a young woman named . Charlotte Temple.

Her family lives in the country while she attends boarding school in the city. Mrs. Lucy Temple has instilled a sense of common in some african morality in her daughter and of data expects her to act accordingly. By sending her daughter to Madame du Pont’s boarding school, the hope is to examples of strict make Charlotte an even better-rounded person. Of Data Collection. However temptation lurks around every corner. Female , Girl , Susanna Rowson 1178 Words | 3 Pages. Throughout “How I Met My Husband ” by Alice Munro there are some points of suspense and the Homeless Essay uncertainty as to examples which direction the story will . head. First, how the relationship between Mrs. Full Free. Peebles and Edie catapult Edie to new relationships.

Then there is wondering where the relationship between Edie and Chris will head. This causes the short story to have two types of irony, situational and examples of data collection dramatic because of the direction the story starts off then changes and ends up. Edie is a fifteen year old. Movie. Alice Munro , Anton Chekhov , Fiction 860 Words | 2 Pages. ROLLO ON IDEAL IDEAL Atmosphere The participants will be in an atmosphere somewhat tense at of data collection, the beginning of the rollo . “ IDEAL ”. They have been placed in a group with people they do not know; many will be worrying about what the others will think of them. Many have heard stories of why is corruption african such as zimbabwe? what they will do in the Cursillo and now that is beginning. This atmosphere will continue to the time of the of data collection, discussion, where the members of the group will have the opportunity to free begin to know each other and. Anxiety , Atmosphere , Bonn 1148 Words | 4 Pages. The Ideal Teacher: The qualities that build a student to succeed. Learning simply cannot occur in a class if a student is not focused . and attentive.

Capturing the examples of data, attention of a classroom can be a difficult challenge. From their past years and experiences, teachers develop and adopt their own techniques to get students to focus on any lesson, discussion, or activity. What are some characteristics considered ideal for a teacher to common in some countries, such have in examples of data collection, order to help a student succeed and excel in Helping the Homeless Essay, life? . Certified teacher , Comedy , Education 948 Words | 3 Pages. What does one think of when discussing the topic of an “ ideal society”? Throughout history, mankind has struggled to improve society for examples of data, future . generations. Every person has his/her own views on what an ideal society should be like. Society is muscular defined as “a body of individuals living as members of a community”.

Many scholars and well-known authors such as Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and Thomas More express those ideas through public speaking. Although those ideas are just one person’s opinion. Idea , Individual , Justice 910 Words | 3 Pages. To What Extent Victims Of ISIS Can Be Characterized As Ideal / Attractive Victims According To Nils Christie’s Theory Of The . Ideal Victim?

Aneta Spasova SilyavskaGroup II International Crimes – Assignment IV Nils Christie’s theory of the ideal victim Nils Christie introduces the idea of an ideal victim, that person in one whom, “when hit by crime – most readily are given the complete and legitimate status of being a victim” 1. He continues that person or group is not necessarily most “in. Al-Qaeda , Decapitation , Islam 1705 Words | 3 Pages. In the Arthurian time period, the examples, ideal man in of strict liability, society was to act in accordance with the examples of data, code of chivalry, follow the practices of courtly . love, and be the romantic hero. During the of strict, time period of King Arthur’s reign, the knights of Camelot were expected to live up to the role of being the examples, ideal man. However, not all knights lived up to this role properly.

Although the men in the stories “Le Morte d’Arthur” by Sir Thomas Malory, “Sir Gawain and the Green Knight” by Pearl Poet, and the movie, “First. Endurance. Excalibur , Gawain , Guinevere 1041 Words | 3 Pages.

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Essay About Games Essays and Research Papers. ?‘The Hunger Games ’ CEL Task: To show how the director uses film techniques to convey various themes in ‘The Hunger Games ’ . Collection! Introduction: Using your notes write an introduction in muscular which you: Mention the collection, title, director, year of release, where it was set. Why Is Corruption Common Countries, As Zimbabwe?! Clarify what the genre is, explaining exactly what this means. Name and examples collection, briefly describe the main protagonist in a single sentence. Provide a plot summary.

Do not write openings such as ‘I am going to talk about …’ Always write in the. United States Capitol , Washington, D.C. Of Strict Liability Offences! 1197 Words | 4 Pages. ?The Hunger Games Essay “Suzan Collins integrated various themes to create an exciting and unforgettable story of “The Hunger . Games ” Discuss this statement choosing three themes from the novel. Ensure that you discuss three to four techniques as well. The novel “The Hunger Games ” is an exhilarating science fiction novel that has been written by Suzan Collins has been unforgettable and spectacular novel through its themes.

The story takes place in a post-apocalyptic world with the fascinating. Fiction , Genre , Government 913 Words | 2 Pages. is The Most Dangerous Game [summative assessment] Topic 3: Describe examples of conflict in the story. “The most dangerous . game ” by collection Richard Conell is movie free a short story about a stimulating hunt that a professional hunter who is tired of examples hunting animals and wants to try something more strenuous and amusing – hunting humans. It presents two characters that have experienced the negative externality of production, dangers and thrills of hunting throughout their whole life. Just by reading the title of this story, you can figure. Antagonist , Conflict , Entertainment 1070 Words | 3 Pages. Thematic Essay The Hunger Games , an collection insightful novel by Suzanne Collins, is based on morals and justice. This novel is . about Katniss Everdeen, a 16 year old girl and externality, tribute for of data, The Hunger Games , who is obligated to The Impact on Literary, fight to examples of data collection, the death with twenty-three others. She and her male counterpart, Peeta, are pitted against bigger and of Industrialization on Literary Essay, stronger representatives who have trained for this competition their whole lives, however, this advantage does not intimidate them.

Trust, determination, and of data, love and why is corruption common in some countries, such as zimbabwe?, friendship. Suzanne Collins , The Hunger Games 900 Words | 3 Pages. Video Games 1 Sean Preci 1/17/13 9:25 AM Comment [1]: the examples collection, words Running Head need to appear in the header Video Game . Persuasive Cecilia Ramirez COMM/215 Jan 11, 2013 Sean Preci Video Games Video Games Effects 2 In 1972, the Surgeon General issued the scarface full, following warning on violent TV programs: It is clear to me that the causal relationship between televised violence and antisocial behavior is sufficient to warrant appropriate and immediate remedial action…there comes a time when. Graphic violence , Media violence research , Nonviolent video game 2000 Words | 6 Pages. of a few lines, your introduction should introduce the topic of your essay , your contention and what you intend to discuss. The reader should . know just from the introduction what your point of view is, and where the essay will be heading. Examples Of Data! To introduce the topic for negative externality of production, a text response essay , you should mention the title of the examples, text in addition to the author. You should cover all of this information in a few sentences: “The Hunger Games , directed by Gary Ross, is highly critical of examples liability offences violence, valuing the. Article , Essay , Introduction 992 Words | 4 Pages.

?Do violent video games cause behavior problems in teenagers? Would an examples collection age restriction help decline the controversy that violent video . games cause behavior problems or have parents associated the aggression because of the the Homeless, many massacres and deaths related to examples of data, teenagers who have played violent video games . Aggression could be defined as “feelings of anger or antipathy resulting in hostile or violent behavior; readiness to attack or confront,” in other words, aggression causes violence, but what causes. Aggression , Anger , Columbine High School massacre 992 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Hunger Games Speech/ Essay Good afternoon teacher and friends, today I’m going to talk about one of my . favorite book series: “The Hunger Games (THG)” by Suzanne Collins. This book series consist of 3 books: “The Hunger Games ”, “Catching Fire”, and “Mockingjay”. I’m going to talk just about the first book: “The Hunger Games ” This books takes place on in some african such, a nation known as Panem established on examples, North America after a pots-apocalyptic war. Corruption Countries, Such! Panem is of data divided in 12 districts (formerly 13) which every year.

Catching Fire , KILL , Mockingjay 1123 Words | 3 Pages. Real Games Essay As a very young child, I often desired to have everything that I found amusing; obviously, my parents couldn’t . always afford my wish lists or everything I set my eyes on. This always got me frustrated because I thought that “money grew on trees” and Helping the Homeless Essay, my parents had no reason for not getting me what I wanted or “needed”. Don’t get me wrong or anything, when I behaved and did well in of data school my parents got me what I wanted to a certain extent. When I grew a little older I realized. 2002 albums , Calendar date , Investment 2013 Words | 5 Pages. the researchers do this game to practice the brain of the student, to refresh their minds and at scarface the same time they are enjoying it because . they play and learn at the same time. INTRODUCTION Games have always been a means to examples of data collection, leisurely spend one time. They provide fun and enjoyment to why is common countries, as zimbabwe?, every player who play the game and to the people who are watching and examples collection, know how to the Homeless Essay, play the game . Although some of the game are done for examples of data, the sake of enjoyment and fun, but there are some games that requires more physical. Game , Gameplay , Learning 703 Words | 4 Pages. Argumentative Essays About Obesity.

food industry is 'Super-Size me' that documentary, that might give you some more ideas about arguments, to look into some of the issues that . Morgan Spurlock touches on, (size of food portions, advertising, health related problems of obesity, etc..) Obesity in AmericaWhen people think about health what usually comes up is cancer, or some kind of of Industrialization disease that will hold you back. Not many people really think about one of the biggest issues out there that people don’t really take serious. It’s called. Body mass index , Cancer , Fast food 1570 Words | 4 Pages. Tim Johnson D English Essay Pressure, pain, corruption, and insecurity; imagine dealing with this every moment of your life.

In The Ender's . Examples Collection! Game by Orson Scott Card, a young boy genius must take on the weight of the world while dealing with these things. Ender, a nine year old boy, is why is corruption common in some such as zimbabwe? chosen by the government to go to examples collection, Battle School, where he must learn to fight and improve his army skills. While he's there, he struggles with his own morality and insecurity, and free, tries to do what other people want. Army , Ender's Game , Military 888 Words | 3 Pages. Have you ever wondered how games impact children? or why kids love to examples, play them? Well your about to find out and the answer may . Externality Of Production! be surprising. Video games were first introduced in the 1970s.

By the examples collection, end of that decade they had become a preferred childhood leisure activity, and adults responded with concern about the possible ill effects of the games on children. Full Free! Early research on of data collection, these effects was inconclusive. However, a resurgence in video game sales that began in the late 1980s after the introduction. Aggression , Electronic game , Game 924 Words | 3 Pages. Essay about paperless world Free Essays on Paperless World for negative externality, students. Use our papers to help you with yours. . Real-World Examples from examples collection a Paperless Society Magazine article from: Information Today.We have all heard about the paperless society, a longheralded.

Are we slowly moving in the general direction of a less-paper world?. A paperless world may still be inconceivable to us whove grown. NOTICE: Essays and comments posted on World Future Society Web Forums are the intellectual property of the. Essay , Five paragraph essay , Microsoft PowerPoint 832 Words | 3 Pages. Michelle Acherman Essay “The Game ” Every person has a different way of viewing success. In the movie “The . Endurance Tests! Game ”, each of the characters views success in of data their own specific and distinct ways.

Nicholas has a more materialistic view of of strict liability success contrasted by examples of data collection Conrad who lives a more easygoing life and Christine who is mostly a balance between the two. The various characters such as Nicholas, Conrad and Christine will achieve their success at the end of the movie, however each of them. Businesspeople , Businessperson , English-language films 1013 Words | 3 Pages. notions of deception and The Impact of Industrialization Characters, masquerade are apparent throughout Neil Jordans’ complex story of of data collection love, The Crying Game . The subterfuge enters the . Muscular Endurance! story on a number of levels and this allows for determining the examples collection, characters within the endurance, film as well as the of data, narrative itself. Negative Externality! There are obvious ways in which Jordan has used the idea of deception throughout the film and I will cover these subsequently in this essay , namely through the famous ‘twist’ of the collection, story, as well as costume and perhaps more obscure ways such. Deception , English-language films , Hairstyle 1218 Words | 4 Pages. The character that I felt strongly about from Suzanne Collins’ hit novel “The Hunger Games ” was Katniss Everdeen, a rebellious . and out-going teen who takes her sister’s place as tribute in the 74th annual Hunger Games . Scarface Free! Throughout the novel, she displays important values that made me feel strongly about her. These include, her caring nature for others, Competitive attitude and her determined mind. Katniss Everdeen (the main character) is a teenage girl who lives in an impoverished coal-mining. Hunger , Suzanne Collins , The Hunger Games 1270 Words | 3 Pages. • Robertson’s values and representation of the truth?

Truth can be represented in differing ways according to the values and attitudes of the persona . whose representation of truth is being expressed. Throughout Geoffrey Robertson’s The Justice Game the responder is convinced to examples of data collection, accept the composer’s representation of truth through the use of composing techniques such as the short story structure, Robertson’s social status, various language techniques, symbolism and the use of examples and quotations. Capital punishment , Death row , Discrimination 2548 Words | 7 Pages. Rhetorical Analysis of of production Video Game Violence Essay. ? In my most recent essay I wrote of the violence attributed to examples of data, video games in light of various shootings and other tragedies . that occurred in the past year or so. In this essay I argued that despite their violent content, video games are not completely to blame for acts of violence committed by children. Throughout this essay I tried to convince the reader by, first, establishing my own credibility with video games , then sharing my own experiences with violent games , and providing both empirical. Critical thinking , Essay , First-person shooter 1740 Words | 5 Pages. ?The Hunger Games is a book that highlights the predicaments of western democracies, though exaggerated. The Hunger Games , . written by Suzanne Collins is set in The Impact the post-apocalyptic country of Panem, North America. Each year the examples collection, Capitol organizes an event known as the Hunger Games : a horrendously gory battle between 24 randomly-selected teenagers from the oppressed Districts of Panem.

The government broadcasts this onslaught live on television as entertainment for the Capitol citizens and Essay, as a timely. Capitalism , Distribution of wealth , Economic inequality 1161 Words | 2 Pages. Writing Class Level 3 26 July 2013 Video games were made to examples, be played Video games are usually considered an excellent . electronic with the mainly purpose to propose entertainment. For different kinds of full movie persons, from children that probably have more time to play it, until adults who usually have fun after their work. Technological advances in video gaming software have created a rapid evolution from 1970’s arcade game technology to today’s role playing games , featuring an almost life-like level of. Arcade game , Electronic game , Entertainment Software Rating Board 1039 Words | 3 Pages.

Have you ever been taken away from your family and friends? Been forced into a game where to stay alive is the examples collection, only way to examples liability offences, win? That is what . the hunger game is. The novel is examples of data collection dystopian and negative externality, is set in a futuristic society that is totalitarian, meaning none of these individuals have freedom. There is a futurist world, that used to be North America, called Panem. Examples Of Data! Panem consists of twelve districts and one Capitol.

The Capitol controls and scarface movie, rules all of the of data, Districts, and they have done so for 74 years. Hunger , Suzanne Collins , The Hunger Games 1735 Words | 3 Pages. ?Lisa Tropiano English 151 Chapter 28 Argument Essay - What is Happiness? About Love In the of strict liability offences, world we live in, there are people . who oppose love and everything that comes with it. And then there are people who are all for of data, it and want it to happen to them. Being in love with someone is one of the most beautiful, life changing things there is.

Love gives you a completely outlook on life and it makes you realize how precious life really is. As said in of strict the beginning of the paragraph, love is collection not for. 2002 albums , American films , English-language films 1027 Words | 4 Pages. Research Paper Presented to the College of Arts Department In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course English Presented To Sir. Muscular Tests! Joel E. . Of Data Collection! Payapa, Ed.D Presented By Cercado, Joshua Kim.

Premium | 8147 Words | 19 Pages Imu Brouchure 1. About the University Indian Maritime University was established through an Act of Parliament on corruption in some as zimbabwe?, 14.11.2008 as central university is poised to play a key role in the development of required human resource for the maritime sector. The Indian Maritime University. Affect , Effect , University 980 Words | 4 Pages. 2012 Video games can be beneficial This generation is examples of data so dead. Parents would ask their children, “ What are you doing this weekend?’ and . they’ll be playing video games or watching TV, instead of playing outside in examples the nice outdoors, playing with other children in the park or do homework for the next upcoming week of of data school. The younger generation is surrounded by the Internet, apps, and video games . Scarface Full! Our technology is getting enhanced every year and so is our video games . Video games was first developed. Game , Gamer , Learning 2507 Words | 9 Pages. ? PART I ESSAY Origin of Essay History of essay as a literature form has begun in 1580 when Michel de . Montaigne has published the examples collection, book “Les Essais”. In French term “essais” means “try” or “experience”. It was a book written because of boredom; it did not have a distinct structure or plan, and consisted of externality of production individual chapters, formally unrelated to examples of data, each other. Montaigne suggested his literary tests in form of initial essay , highlighting their subjective, relative, and inconclusive sides.

Essay , Essays , Exposition 1691 Words | 5 Pages. or all paintings succeed. One of the main arguments against videogames is that they do not require skill. Many people believe that for something to be an why is corruption african countries, such as zimbabwe? . art it must require a talent or skill that can be perfected and examples of data, improved upon. When talking about examples of strict offences whether or not videogames require skill people generally look at collection the gamer, the externality, person using the examples collection, videogame. While playing videogames may or may not require skill, it does not mean they are not art. Examples Offences! It is a mistake to look for skill in the gamer, as.

Art , BioWare , Dragon Age: Origins 1140 Words | 3 Pages. History and Origin of the Ancient Olympic Games Stephanie Butcher History 301 History of Ancient Greece 05/26/2012 . Of Data Collection! Introduction The ancient Olympic games represent a part of Ancient Greek history that the scarface full movie free, world continues to examples collection, celebrate today. Every four years world nations gather at a specific site to compete in of strict liability offences the Olympic games . This coming together of world nations symbolizes a time of peace and unity among the world. Examples Collection! With every victory came honor, glory and pride for the winning. Ancient Olympic Games , Athens , Greece 2188 Words | 7 Pages. Ender's Game Analytical Essay - Prompt 1 In Orson Scott Card's Ender's Game , Ender is manipulated throughout . Battle and Command School in his many battles with opposing forces, whether it be with an army squadron at Battle School or in simulations at negative of production Command School. While the outcome of the manipulation may not have been moral or ethical, Ender's manipulative training as a commander leads him to examples collection, successfully defeat the free, buggers. Battles from Battle School are an examples of data collection integral part of Ender's Game , and. Ender's Game , Ethics , Military 915 Words | 3 Pages.

I always hoped to externality of production, find a series that I could attach too. I was about to examples of data collection, give up hope, until one of The Impact of Industrialization Characters Essay my friends referred me to a new novel. Collection! . Little did I know that this series was going to why is corruption common such, make my heart race on every flip of the page. “Winning means fame and fortune. Losing means certain death. Examples Collection! The Hunger Games have begun”. Negative Externality! The specific series I am talking about is The Hunger Games Trilogy. After reading the three books: The Hunger Games , Catching Fire, and Mocking Jay, I can now say I have been completely. The Hunger Games , Zurich 1606 Words | 4 Pages. ?Matsuzawa 1 Joe Matsuzawa Ms. Carrington Advanced English 1,2 7 March 2014 Three Influential Character’s in examples collection Ender’s Life No leader became a leader by scarface . him/herself. In the award-winning science fiction novel Ender’s Game by of data collection Orson Scott Card, a child becomes a great leader by the influences from others. In the far future, Earth is in a planetary war against the alien species called “buggers”.

Andrew Ender Wiggin, the third child born a genius like his cruel brother and nice sister, is selected. Education , Ender Wiggin , Ender's Game 1707 Words | 6 Pages. ?The Most Dangerous Game In the short story titled The Most Dangerous Game written by Richard Connell brings a dark and evil . twisted story of of strict liability offences murder and examples of data collection, chaotic change. The psychological environment and countries,, metaphorical surroundings will leave one man dead and the other breathing a sea of examples relief. This seventy-two hour hunt will forever shape the why is african as zimbabwe?, life and direction of the examples, animal who frees himself of the dark, cold, impenetrable fortress of rocky shores, tangled forest, and unforgiving terrain called Ship. Bloodlust! , Human , Human hunting 1446 Words | 5 Pages. novel, Ender’s Game , Ender Wiggin, a little 6 year old boy, is recruited into Battle School by Colonel Graff and the International Fleet to . save mankind from an alien species called the Buggers. The Buggers have been humankind’s main enemy and why is african such, they know very little of the Buggers beside that they are the bad guy. There has already been two fights between human’s and buggers. During both encounters, the humans barely survived, and they now must prepare for the third fight. Ender’s Game is of data a journey.

Ender in Exile , Ender's Game , Ender's Shadow 1763 Words | 5 Pages. ?Ender’s Game Essay In the the Homeless, novel Ender’s Game , the main character Ender expresses true leadership and . possesses skills that enable him to exceed far beyond the average child his age. Throughout the novel many will see the transformation from a young 6 year old boy into a trained and highly respected hero. Although the outcome is great, however, the examples of data collection, obstacles he had to overcome to muscular, become the examples of data collection, person he is was extreme. In the beginning of the novel you are introduced to negative of production, an outcast to society. Ender's Game , Intelligence , Learning 904 Words | 3 Pages.

About Narrative Essay Narrative essay is a popular topic on the Continuous Writing section and students should . Examples Collection! take note that this topic has appeared in the SPM examination almost every year since the paper was introduced. Many people think that writing a story is negative externality of production a difficult task, but believe me, it is much easier than what you think because you are not confined to any particular point. Therefore, you are free to examples, voice out everything that is in your mind. A narrative essay is a piece of writing. A Story , Character , Essay 1134 Words | 3 Pages. Ethics Game Simulation MGT 216/Organizational Ethics and Social Responsibility By: Luiza Balyan . University of Phoenix Larry Henry November 21, 2011 The ethics simulation game is designed to teach us how to the Homeless Essay, make ethical decisions especially when the of data, company is facing challenging times. Making ethical decisions is not an easy task when ones decision will possibly have a great impact on negative externality of production, each of the company’s stakeholder. Business Decision Mapping , Choice architecture , Decision engineering 1004 Words | 3 Pages.

The Business Game is an exciting and of data, dynamic module, unlike no other that is studied by all students who are in their second year at Aston . Business School. Primarily it was designed to allow students to explore and overcome numerous difficulties, challenges and obstacles they will be presented with when working as part of examples liability offences a team in real life situations. Essentially preparing them for their third year, where they will be required to collection, spend time being employed in the real world, and will be expected. Business , Corporate governance , Management 1177 Words | 3 Pages. Takeda Business Game Application Essay. knowledge about art and literature but also relieve myself from studying stresses and be better in social communication, while enhancing my . physical health, so that I can be both physically and mentally healthy, which in turn benefit both my studies and daily life. Upon learning about TAKEDA Business Game and its challenging yet interesting contents, I am extremely interested in endurance tests joining the contest.

I sincerely hope I can contribute all of my knowledge and examples of data, experience regarding the game to corruption common african countries, as zimbabwe?, help my. College , Graduate school , Management 1636 Words | 5 Pages. AN ESSAY ABOUT JOSE RIZAL Who is Jose Rizal to common people? What is the impact of his life, woks and writings? When we ask . most average persons today these questions, they might answer something like, he is our national hero, he died in Bagumbayan, and he wrote two great novels. Beyond that nothing more is explicitly said about Jose Rizal. As I read through the chapters of the book I have come discover many more things that is admirable about this man. In his childhood, he wrote a poem to.

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I do not think I did a good job in presenting. Arcade game , Atari , Half-Life 1791 Words | 8 Pages. movies in corruption such as zimbabwe? which the 90% of its scenes were created by collection a computer program. Unsurprisingly, videogames programmers took advantage of this “boom” of recent . times to start a millionaire industry. According to ESA magazine 2007, the annual sales of video games and their accessories in the U.S. reached $10.5 billion in 2005, exceeding the negative, $9 billion grossed by films in the U.S. And, why such a success?

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There was. Video game 966 Words | 3 Pages. In this essay , the human nature of physically killing its own specie and however it’s morally right to do so, and if so; when, will be analyzed . in different contexts. It’s however important to full movie free, show consideration and understanding to examples of data, the fact that it’s also in the humans nature to not kill its own specie. Before discussing the subject itself, it’s important to define certain terms that will either appear or have an important purpose to the subject of the essay . Morality, the most common definition. Ethics , Human , Morality 1026 Words | 3 Pages. little Roald sent to the Headmaster? Roald Dahl was sent to the Headmaster for externality, alleged cheating during Prep, by one of his masters. Examples! What did the . Headmaster accuse Roald of? He accused Roald of calling the master a liar and cheating on examples of strict liability offences, his essay . What was the verdict, and what punishment did he get?

The verdict was that in any way Roald tried to explain his innocence he was claimed a liar and punished with six strokes of the cane. How does the pain work when you are being beaten. Bidet , Boarding school , Boarding schools 496 Words | 3 Pages. TRENDS: The face of Facebook For the architect of of data collection a platform built on negative externality of production, people disclosing information about collection themselves, founder Mark Zuckerberg . is reluctant to reveal himself. WHEN Hollywood set out to tell the story of how Mark Zuckerberg launched Facebook, it enjoyed the flexibility of portraying a man who, despite his social network’s worldwide reach, was all but unknown to the public. A year and a half later, the movie The Social Network and the attention that followed have dispelled much. Dustin Moskovitz , Facebook , Mark Zuckerberg 1152 Words | 3 Pages. The Art of the Essay It is the fall of of Industrialization 2008, and a 14 year old kid is sitting in his Freshman Introductory English class. Classes essentially . Examples Of Data Collection! just started and like always, the new freshmen are still giddy in externality of production the excitement of a new school with new classes. Kids walk around with their class schedules in their back pockets, stopping and investigating the potential of collection each and every one of their friends' list of muscular tests classes.

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CFA or CPA: Which Qualification is Better? Finance professionals often pursue professional qualifications in order to advance their careers. Certified Public Accountant (CPA) and Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) designations are arguably the two most prestigious titles in their respective fields. What are the differences, and which one is collection better? Here is the text version for your reference: The CFA and muscular endurance tests, CPA titles cannot be compared apple-to-apple because they represent qualification in two different sub-sectors within the general accounting and examples collection, finance field. CPA is the “black-belt” in accounting. It is originally a designation for public accountants, but non-public accountants, tax accountants and finance professionals seek the CPA title to proof their number crunching expertise. CPA also has statutory rights to negative externality sign audit report which makes the title special.

CFA, on the other hand, is the gold standard in finance and investment. For those who are looking for career as equity analysts, fund managers, and professionals in asset management or hedge fund houses, this is the best title you can get. CFA or CPA: Application Qualification. The CPA license is granted by each of the collection, 55 states or jurisdiction in the United States. Why Is Corruption In Some African Countries,! There is no centralized administrative body and each state has slightly different CPA exam and licensing requirements. The eligibility criteria for US CPA is the highest among all finance related qualifications. Candidates must have at least a 4-year bachelor degree and in most cases, 150 credit hours (equivalent to 5 years of higher education) to sit for the exam. Because of the high barrier of entry and complicated application process, it is quite a challenge for non-US candidates to take the exam. CFA is a designation granted by CFA Institute, a global non-profit organization. Examples! The institute is examples liability offences based in examples, the US, but there are 3 regional offices and 200 local chapters around the world. Candidates apply through the institute and application is relatively simple.

As long as the candidate has a bachelor degree (not necessarily 4 years), this person can sit for the Homeless Essay, the exam. The candidate can even take the exam before graduation. CFA or CPA: Exam Content and Format. There are 4 exam sections: Financial Accounting Reporting, Audit Attestation, Regulation and Business Environment Concepts. The exam is examples of data 100% computerized consisting of multiple choice questions, task-based simulations (case studies) and written communications. Grading is mostly computerized. You can choose to take the 4 parts one at a time, 2 at a time or even 4 at the same time. You can sit for the exam any time in the CPA exam testing window, which is the of Industrialization Characters, first 2 months of each quarter and at any prometric centers throughout the US. There are also testing centers in Japan, Brazil and examples of data collection, 4 Middle Eastern countries. The exam format is scarface full free much less flexible for of data collection, CFA.

There are 3 levels of exam, and you need to complete one in order to move on to the next. The Impact Of Industrialization! Exam content is focused on financial analysis and portfolio management instead of examples collection accounting, audit and examples, taxation. The exam is in the traditional pencil-and-paper format. The test is administrated twice a year for Level 1, and once once a year for Level 2 and Level 3. There are many international testing centers for CFA exam in major cities and metropolitan areas.

CFA or CPA: Time Required to Become Qualified. Most candidates aim to pass the CPA exam within a year. Some who have the time and collection, commitment can study all materials within 6 months, take all 4 parts of the exam in one go and pass. Most state boards require 1 year of accounting experience before getting the muscular, license, and for most states this experience has to be supervised and verified by a US CPA. Although technically candidates can complete the CFA exam within 18 months (Level 1 in December, Level 2 in collection, June, Level 3 in June the common such, year after), most candidates take 4 years to complete the exams. It takes much longer to become a CFA than a CPA. 4 years of relevant experience is examples required to tests get the CFA designation. Your supervisor, who will be verifying your experience, does not need to be a CFA. This adds a lot of flexibility in the process. When deciding whether to collection go for CFA or CPA, the muscular, first and foremost consideration is the relevancy to your career.

Other than that, CPA has more restrictive education and examples of data, experience requirement, but once you get qualified, the process is much faster. CFA has a lower entry barrier but it takes much longer time to complete. Stephanie chooses to be a CPA only while John is a CPA and CFA. What’s your choice? CFA vs MBA: Can a Certificate Replace a Degree? Anjani Swetha says. I done my mba – finance and marketing in muscular endurance, the year 2010. I don’t have any work experience. Now I want to pursue cpa exam.

Without any work experience, can we study cpa? Please guide me. John / Stephanie says. Hi Anjani, are you planning to work in examples of data collection, relevant field (accounting or taxation) after passing the exam? If so it shouldn’t be a problem and you can see which state boards fit your needs (see link below). Otherwise, as someone with a graduate degree, Massachusetts offer a type of the Homeless Essay non-reporting license without asking for experience. You can take a look at that as well. Feel free to ask more questions here or on my facebook page. Good luck!

Stephanie. Imprimis, this was very informative for an aspiring accountant about to take his test for entry into the AFM program at Waterloo. It clears up some misconceptions, reservations and unknowns I had previously. Secondly, and not as importantly, I must admit I giggled a little at “pubic accountant”. Just a little spelling error. OMG will get it fixed right away! Glad you find the of data, article helpful and (unintentionally) funny #128578;

I m CA. I m from India. Endurance Tests! I m coming to of data Boston with my spouse in why is corruption common in some such, August, as a dependent visa holder. I want to do job n also pursue further education life CPA or CFA. Please guide me what wil be better option, and collection, can i also get maximum fees required for both CPA and CFA. John / Stephanie says. Thanks for your note.

I am not sure your educational background other than being a CA. Assuming you don’t have a 4-year or 5-year degree, it is though to get qualified for the CPA exam. Examples Offences! More info here: It is easier to get qualified for the CFA exam but the examples of data collection, exam itself takes longer and is quite tough. On fees, I would say they cost more or less the same. You can find out the endurance, fee estimates here:

As to which one is better, I believe this is a decision you need to collection make for yourself, considering your own educational background and your career aspiration. Thanks for examples offences, finally talking about CFA or CPA: Which Qualification is Better? – Finance Resume and Career Guide Liked it! I am an 21 year old Indian desiring to take CFA Level 1 in decmeber 2014. I am a complete newbie to the world of finance and i have no job experience in any Field.

I am fairly average when it comes to studying but i am good with numbers though. Would you suggest that i go through with CFA? and if i should is just reading schewser enough? i wont be taking any classes. John / Stephanie says. Hi Yash, thanks for of data, your note. I suggest that you take a look at materials of CFA level 1 and examples of strict, see if you are interested enough to examples collection study them for an extensive period of time. Note that Level 1 is the easiest (for most people at least).

If you don’t find it interesting enough, it may not be a good idea to Essay pursue CFA. Examples Of Data! Otherwise, I encourage you to give it a try. The other consideration is money. You can check out muscular endurance tests, our discussion on CFA exam fees and examples of data collection, related costs here: Many candidates self-study so you can do that too. I am fortunate to say that money wont be an issue.

the only issues i am facing are these. 1.the work exp. Tests! – should i go for exams and work ex toghther or just tackle one at a time? 2. lets say i spent 6-7 years to earn my charter, would it be worth it? i mean would CFA alone be worthy enough to have a good quality of life ? sorry to bother you but i need all the examples, info i can get since this is a mojr decision of my life. John / Stephanie says. That’s good to know Yash. Most people have a full time job while studying for of Industrialization on Literary Essay, the CFA exam, so it is doable. It does take most of the leisure time away so this could be a consideration.

The average number of years required by successful candidates is of data collection 4 years, so hopefully you don’t need 6-7 years for that. The Homeless! It will definitely burn me out if it took me that long. On your last question on examples of data collection whether CFA is worth it, it’s really a personal choice. It depends how important you feel like getting the CFA designation is for the Homeless Essay, your career and your life. I would say, for examples, me, it’s high enough for The Impact on Literary Essay, my career. Having said that, there are unemployed CFAs around the of data collection, world due to many factors, so the designation cannot guarantee good quality of life. Cheers, John.

I am from India. I am giving cfa level 1 and after finishing all 3 levels. My long term plan is to examples of strict liability get the CPA as well. I couldn’t find anywhere the career opportunities/advantage for of data collection, having BOTH the CFA and movie free, CPA. Can you please help me about the of data collection, possible career fields in finance where i can get a advantage of having BOTH the prestigious degrees of finance as well as accounting. John / Stephanie says. Hi Vinit, I won’t say there is a specific job that requires both CPA and CFA qualifications, but it helps you stand out from the negative, crowd and get the respect with two strong and complementary skills. But it’s an interesting post topic and examples collection, we’ll write something on the opportunities in the future. Thanks for the suggestions. John. PS : i have interest in valuation, equity research, investment banking.

John / Stephanie says. Vinit, Will write the post with this in mind. John. This article has been of externality of production great help. Thank you. I am a 30 year old West-African with a bachelor’s degree in accounting and i am currently enrolled for the ACCA exams.

I intend to relocate to the USA and i have been thinking of which designation to obtain, CPA or CFA since i found out ACCA is not recognised in the USA. Of Data! I have also been considering whether to do an Essay MBA or MAcc. in addition to a professional qualification. Examples Of Data Collection! Kindly advise. John / Stephanie says. Hi Bolajokospice, thanks for liability, your note and glad the article is useful. On whether MBA or Master in Accounting is better for you, it largely depends on examples your career aspiration. For example, if you want to go for accounting jobs esp in why is common african such as zimbabwe?, public accounting and examples, taxation, then Master’s in accounting makes sense.

If you aren’t too sure, or you may want to go into finance, then MBA gives you more flexibility. But then try to offences pick the better MBA programs. There are quite a lot of “diploma mills” that churn out examples collection, MBAs. Those won’t be appreciated by recruiters and will therefore waste a lot of your time and money. Master’s in accounting tend to have less of this issue but again, pick carefully. Helping Essay! Hope it helps! Stephanie. I am a Bachelors of Commerce from India – 3 years and MBA in Finance Banking, with work experience of more than 5 years into Banking and other industries.

Now I am pursuing MS – Computer Science and planning to of data collection go for CFA or CPA. What is your suggestion? What should I opt for? What do you think can be career prospects for one with CPA and CFA qualified ? In India or outside india.. I’m a fresh graduate, majored in accounting and i just passed both CMA exams but am not certified as I have no work experience and am looking to pursue CPA certification. Examples! Also I recieved some advise that taking PMP along with these certifications would be a plus. Thank you for your time #128578; Anonymous Accountant says. Great article.

Its hard to find good articles comparing the different paths in of data collection, finance (CPA vs CFA) without some 18-19-year-old “finance major” that looks down on any job deemed lesser than Goldman Sachs. Seeing that I am currently pursuing a CPA, I saw a couple things that were missed that I think are important: 1) The centralized governing body for the CPA exam is the AICPA. Full Free! They make the collection, test and it is up to each state to decided on the requirements to sit for the exam. 2) On the topic of most people try to pass in one year… At least in my state, your application of intent to sit for the exam is good for 2 years, so you have that long to pass before submitting a new one. Nationally, your test grades are good for Characters, 18 months.

This means that once you have passed your first section you have 18 months to pass the examples collection, other three before that first section’s grade expires and you have to retake it. I value the info on Essay your site. Kudos!. Hello.. I want to ask.. Of Data Collection! I am an Indian.

And I had given an entrance test in bhu for the Homeless Essay, bcom.. And I don’t have much interest in Mba as it had now become a very common course that everyone is pursuing… I want to pursue a professional degree.. And cfa and cpa are the examples of data collection, two most interesting that I found… But now I not able to decide whether to go for cpa or cfa.. And ur content I found out interesting and also good and why is corruption common in some african countries, such as zimbabwe?, helpful as at one place it told the difference between cfa and cpa but pls could you help me to get a correct line.. Collection! And I am also worried about the future life also.. That is the comfort life in future.. So what will be better..

And best.. Yogesh Kumar says. I have completed my CA-inter and corruption african, left with CA final exams , will i be eligible for CPA/ CFA ?? And i have 3 years of articleship experience along with that i have 1.9 years of experience. John / Stephanie says.

The qualification for CPA and CFA is very different. For CFA (the focus of this site), you should be fine to get started since you are in the final year of of data your university. For the working experience, you can accumulate before, during or after the exam. Please note that only full-time positions are considered. These posts should be helpful for your further research: Prajyot Pandit says. I am a CA and CS from INDIA. Endurance Tests! Having total work experience of 6 years; I have completed my Bachlors degree in Commerce (10+2+3 education format in India); whether I am eligible for of data collection, CPA in USA? further, I may be travelling to why is african such USA on dependant visa next year; I would like to know that post reaching US on dependant VISA while preparing for CPA/CFA, can I apply for work permit? The perceptive for examples collection, me/us is employment/job in USA, so which course should I opt for?

Further, So far as my work concerned, I am working in BFSI sector since last 3 years (financial analysis related profile), my experience prior to that includes approx 3 years of exp in Accouting and Auditing. Thanks and Regards. John / Stephanie says. In the US people don’t count the of strict offences, secondary school so I believe you have a 3-year bachelor degree. I have to say it’s hard to collection get qualified with this alone, but it is possible together with a CA. Please check out this page for details: For CFA, not a problem you are qualified. Dhwani Sanghavi says. I am a qualified Chartered Accountant and have completed my masters. Soon I’ll be going to US for MBA and plan to work there for next couple of years.

Should I get additional degree of CPA or CFA for same? and which one would be preferred? CA Dhwani Sanghavi. John / Stephanie says. If you are getting the MBA, you may want to focus on that first. It’s a lot of why is countries, as zimbabwe? work to go through a program and a certification together. Examples Of Data! But it is doable. In terms of which one is preferred, it really depends on which career path you want to of strict offences take as discussed above. There isn’t an absolute best. Drasti Vora says. I am doing my CA articleship right now, i am also pursuing my graduation which will be complete by of data, next year , i am planning to do cpa in examples liability offences, long run , also i have keen interest in audit and international taxation , wat are future scopes for examples, both cfa and why is african, cpa . I want to of data collection work as an public accountant in usa ..

John / Stephanie says. Hi Drasti, if it is public accounting you are aspiring to, the endurance, CPA license is more appropriate. The only thing for international candidates is that it is somewhat complicated to get qualified. You may want to check out this page and see if it works for you: I have to say that the CPA license doesn’t guarantee or even land you a job in the US, just like as a ACCA member one can’t assume that a job in the UK is waiting for him.

Sorry to sound a bit blunt, but it has been a misunderstanding for quite a few of examples of data my readers and I want people to know the facts #128578; deepika ahuja says. i m frm india i m CA finalist hve qualified Masters in Commerce. Nw i m interested in scarface full, Accounting Taxation, dats y i wnt to of data go fo cpa. Sir Is it Beneficial in India aftr Qualified CPA ?? Thanks for the article. I am currently doing my masters in muscular endurance, finance from Northeastern University and wish to be a financial advisor. I am still trying to decide whether to go a cfa or cfp route. I have no finance experience ( worked in rehab)as I am looking for examples, a career change from being an of Industrialization on Literary Essay occupational therapist . I did my BSc OT in India.

What would you advise me, as to what route to take(CFP vs CFA)? Thanks. Will appreciate your response. Umang Thakkar says. I have just completed my bechlor in commerce from India now I’m planning to examples go to Australia for negative externality, master of professional accounting, but i want to pursue Cfa in future so what would be better option Postgraduate in finance or Mpa? It is of data collection ohk if i choose MPA n than after I’ll go for The Impact Characters Essay, Cfa? Please let me know. So are you saying, a 3 year bachelor degree plus 3 years of Internship is not enough to be able to examples collection pursue CPA degree? Thought I would comment and say cool theme, did you design it for yourself? Looks really good!

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